Open Access Review Article

Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty: Technique and Results

Omar Mohamed Raouf Mohamed Ahmed Elsaka, Omar Elsaka

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 124-132
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030388

Background: Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty is a procedure used to dilate the mitral valve in cases of rheumatic mitral stenosis. The catheter is inserted into the female vein to the right atrium and atrial septum. The mitral valve is then passed through the inflated balloon to facilitate effective integration of mitral adhesions, which increases the area of the mitral valve and decreases the rate of mitral stenosis. Mitral regurgitation is a potential problem, and thus balloon percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) is prevented in moderate to severe relapse. The Wilkins score studies mitral valve morphology and evaluation by echocardiography to assess the viability of PBMVs based on specific echocardiographic conditions.

Conclusion: There are many factors in the immediate and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing PMV. Echo-Sc can be used in combination with other clinical and morphological predictions of PMV effects to identify patients who experience the best effects on PMV.

Open Access Review Article

Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect

Omar Elsaka

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 153-161
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030391

Background: Over the past decade, percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure has been the preferred treatment option in many clinical programs for ASD. Percutaneous ASD closures with advanced device architecture and distribution have established user experience and process security. The ability to diagnose has also improved. The devices have evolved from the larger fixtures to the reset zone, being easily eliminated with little residual mesh material and comfortable fitting with the surrounding structures. Biodegradable technology has been introduced and will be considered as a future option. The emergence of the use of the ASD closure device over the last forty years includes improvements that reduce the incidence of adverse effects reported over the years. Issues reported in the literature include thrombus formation, air tightness, device insertion, abrasion, residual shunts and nickel hypersensitivity. Modern tools hold medium and long-term data with excellent results. Multi-sized devices securely close simple and complex ASDs that can re-scan, reset, and detect percutaneous advanced delivery procedures. In this review, the most widely used tools and distribution processes are discussed and the tools that show promise for the future.

Conclusion: As the field of transcatheter treatment of atrial septal defects (TC-ASD) and congenital interventional cardiology develops, real-world design studies provide valuable developmental information on aspects of care where there is disagreement about best practices and more research is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency of Thyroid Dysfunctions among Patients of Diabetes Mellitus Presenting in Tertiary Care Hospital of a Developing Country

Rabia Arshad, Shahzaib Maqbool, Sara Arshad, Fatima Rehman, Muhammad Nadeem, Ruqyia Shabir, Abdul Mateen, Rabia Rehman, Arham Ihtesham, Waleed Inayat Mohamed

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030376

Aims: Thyroid disease is a pathological state associated significantly with diabetes mellitus (DM) Type 1 and Type 2. As the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the rise in our population, so the purposed significance of our study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients of our local population.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study conducted among patients of diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) from September 2020 to March 2021 while their visit in Holy family hospital, Rawalpindi, for a routine clinical check-up on an OPD basis.

Methodology: A total of 96 patients with diabetes mellitus on regular medication, 20 to 60 years of age, were included. Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperlipidemia, pregnant females, and those taking medication that can affect thyroid functions (dopamine antagonists, antiepileptics, oral contraceptives, lithium, glucocorticoids) were excluded. A venous blood sample was drawn and sent to the laboratory to analyze thyroid function tests for the presence or absence of any thyroid dysfunction. Data analysis was done through SPSS.v.23. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis was used, and a p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.97 ± 10.29 years. The majority of the patients, 37.50%, were between 41 to 50 years of age. Out of 96 patients, 61 (63.54%) were male, and 35 (36.46%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1. The majority of patients, 69 (71.88%), had type II diabetes mellitus. The frequency of thyroid dysfunction found in diabetic patients was 30 (31.25%), with hypothyroidism in 19 (19.79%) and hyperthyroidism in 11 (11.46%) patients.

Conclusion: This study deduced that there is a high frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients. In the same vein, hypothyroidism was the common thyroid dysfunction associated with diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perception of Teenage Pregnancy in a Semi-Urban Setting in Rivers State, Nigeria

Belema Brenda Ijoma, Bademosi Adetomi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030377

Background: The case of sexual behavior in adolescents is increasingly worrisome because teenage sexual behavior is now exceeding the limits and quite alarming. This is supported by research an increasing pattern in adolescent pregnancy in sub-Sahara Africa.

Methods: An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of knowledge and perception of 200 adolescent females was carried out in a semi-urban area in Rivers state, Nigeria.

Results: About 61% of the respondents are reportedly sexually active and 39% are not sexually active while 70.0% of the respondents had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy and 30.0% had good knowledge of teenage pregnancy. About 33.3% of respondents with good knowledge of teenage pregnancy was between 13 – 16 years old and 56.67% of individuals with good knowledge had tertiary education. It was observed that 76% of the sexually active respondents had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy and only 60.3% of the non-sexually active persons had poor knowledge. The analysis shows that most of the sexually active persons had poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy (chi-square = 5.78 p =0.016) and the likelihood of poor knowledge was 1.2 times (95% C.I: 1.0 – 1.5) more among the sexually active adolescents. The findings also showed that 52% think peer pressure leads to teenage pregnancy, 78% indicated that poor sexual education at school lead to teenage pregnancy, 71.5% indicated that substance abuse led to teenage pregnancy. Other factors and consequences as indicated by the respondents include: Unsupervised teenagers (83.5%), rape (86.5%), social media (81.5%), Poverty (72.0%), Unsafe abortion (87.5%), stigma and isolation (93.5%).

Conclusion: The study showed a relatively poor knowledge of teenage pregnancy especially among sexually active female adolescents. Sexual education and increased awareness are recommended to curb the spread of teen pregnancy in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coordinative Abilities of Soccer Players: A Comparative Analysis

Sanjit Mandal, Gopal Chandra Saha, Manoj Kumar Murmu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030378

Background: The environment and lifestyle of most children has led to the reduction of their motor activity, as they live in small spaces and lack the proper playing conditions. Coordination is about controlling all the body parts while doing different activities of children. It is about making and maintaining connections between the brain and the muscles that control movement of the children.

Objective: To compare the coordinative abilities between rural and urban male soccer players.

Methodology: A group of sixty (N=60) male soccer players aged between 13-18 years  were randomly allowed for this study from different club of north 24 parganas district, West Bengal. They were further divided into two groups of 30 each (i.e., N1=30; rural players and N2=30; urban players). The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. Orientation ability, Differentiation ability, Reaction ability, Balance ability and Rhythm ability were the Coordinative abilities selected for the study. The independent sample t- test statistical technique was used to analyzed the significant difference of coordinative abilities between rural and urban male soccer players and the level of significance was set at 0.05 levels.

Results: The results showed that there was significant difference between rural and urban male soccer players, in respect to their Coordinative abilities on the sub variables i.e. reaction ability, orientation ability and differentiation ability. However insignificant difference was found for rhythm ability.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the rural male soccer players were better in Orientation ability, Differentiation ability, Reaction ability and Balance ability in comparison to urban male soccer players.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Barriers to Standard Hand Hygiene Practice Amidst COVID-19 in the Tamale Teaching Hospital of Ghana: A Study conducted on First Degree Rotation Nurses of University for Development Studies

Ruth Nimota Nukpezah, Issaka Basit, Ayuba Osman, Gifty Mary Wuffele, Baba Freeman Aziza, Obed Duah Kwaku Asumadu, Wisdom Peprah, Salifu Yula, Richard Opoku Asare

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030380

Background: Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading measure to prevent cross-transmission of COVID-19. The compliance of nurses with handwashing guidelines is vital in preventing COVID-19 disease transmission among patients. Globally, few studies have explored this subject, especially on the nursing students’ perceptions and barriers of standard hand hygiene precautionary measures amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Purpose: The study aimed to assess the perceptions and barriers associated with standard hand hygiene practice during the COVID-19 era among first degree nursing students undertaking their clinical rotation at the Tamale Teaching Hospital of Ghana. This study was conducted in April 2021.   

Materials and methods: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design with a quantitative approach. The study population consisted of first degree student nurses of the University for Development Studies who were on clinical rotation at the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana. The exclusion criteria were nursing students from other tertiary institutions who were having their vacation practicum at the hospital. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants from the wards of the hospital.

A standard statistical formula was used to arrive at a sample size of 120. Data was collected by using a paper-based self-designed structured questionnaire in English language that has closed- and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages were used in representing data.

By using a chi-square test, a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant when the association between independent and dependent variables was cross-tabulated. The statistical software that was used for analyzing the data was SPSS version 23.     

Results: The study had a total of 120 participants with a mean age of 26.48 and a standard deviation of 3.49. On the distribution of perception about hand hygiene, findings indicated that 105 (87.5%) had good perception. Religion and sex respectively were significantly associated with hand hygiene perceptions (χ2= 13.118, p=0.011; χ2=12.49, p=0.014).

Conclusion: Though few of the student nurses had a satisfactory perception regarding hand hygiene, it is a cause to worry about since there exist other barriers influencing standard hand hygiene practices at the Tamale Teaching Hospital.

Recommendation: There is the need for the quality assurance unit of the hospital to ensure strict compliance to COVID-19 protocols by all categories of health professionals by seeing to it that standard hand hygiene practices are adhered to, irrespective of religious background.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension among Adults (40 Years and Above) in the Tano North District of the Ahafo Region, Ghana

Issah Sumaila, Mubarick Nungbaso Asumah, Rosaline Bierema Dassah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 40-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030382

Introduction: Increased prevalence of hypertension (HTN) has been attributed to commonly known risk factors such as obesity, low level of nutritional knowledge, lack of exercise, alcohol intake, and tobacco use.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, and associated risk factors of hypertension among residents of the Yamfo community in the Ahafo Region of Ghana.

Methods:  A community-based cross-sectional study of 174 participants aged ≥40 years were enrolled using simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural/lifestyle risk factors and knowledge of hypertension. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: Prevalence of hypertension was 63.2% (95% CI: 55.7–70.1) in adults 40 years and above. Risk factors that were significantly associated with hypertension were lack of physical activity (p=0.030), alcohol consumption (p=0.001), consumption of meals prepared with oil (p=0.016), reduced frequency of fruit consumption (p=0.008) and reduced frequency of vegetable consumption (p<0.001). Increasing age (aOR,1.9; 95%CI (1.3-2.4); p=.049), physical activity (cOR,2.12, 95% CI (1.07-4.21), p=.032), alcohol consumption (aOR, 57.03; 95% C1 (4.48-726.59); p=.002), and knowledge on the cause of hypeternsion (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI (1.93-5.17); p=.032) were observed as determinants of hypertension.

Conclusion: Majority of the study participants were hypertensive, with the majority of them having knowledge on risk factors of hypertension. Majority of participants had the opinion that hypertension is inevitable, because it comes with old age. Enough (Intensive) education concerning hypertension could be extended to the community, about the different, but equally relevant risk factors of hypertension, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, reduced fruit and vegetable consumption and inappropriate diet. This could be achieved by organizing outreach programs by the community health workers in places like markets and churches in order to remit the elderly that they can still be healthy in old age, and at schools and on social media to inculcate positive health behavior in the youth.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Educational Intervention on Rational Prescribing in Public Health Facilities in Selected Local Government Areas of Rivers State: An Interventional Study

Golden Owhonda, Felix Emeka Anyiam

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 79-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030384

Background: Despite progress made so far in identifying intervention models to improve drug use, irrational use of drugs has remained a serious global health problem. The study intends to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on rational prescribing among prescribers in selected local government areas of Rivers State.

Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that measured the effect of educational intervention on rational prescribing of drugs among prescribers in public health facilities in two selected Local Government Areas (LGA) of Rivers State: Ikwerre LGA (KELGA) which served as the control and Port Harcourt LGA (PHALGA) which served as the intervention by using cluster sampling with randomization. Paired data were analysed using McNemar’s Chi-square test and the paired t-test. The level of significance was set at P≤ 0.05. The EPI-INFO version 7.02 statistical software was used in the analysis.

Results: Findings showed that the largest category of prescribers was nurse/midwives representing 48.61% and 44.4% in the intervention and control LGA respectively. There was an improvement in the knowledge and attitude of respondents in the facilities in the intervention LGA at one month and three months post-intervention (P<0.05). The average number of drugs per encounter (ANDPE), the percentage encounters with an antibiotic (PEA), the percentage encounters with an injection (PEI) were lower for the interventions group compared to the control (P<0.05). Percentage generic drug prescription (PGD) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Educational intervention was an effective and sustainable means of improving rational prescribing in the state. Update courses and continuing medical education on rational drug use should be held periodically for health care professionals by the State and National Primary Health Care Development Agency as well as other interested stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Learning Environment among First year MBBS and BDS Students at a Private Malaysian University

Sherly Deborah George, Theingi Maung Maung, Harini Narayanam

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 96-105
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030385

Background: The learning environment has a significant impact on the academic success and learning process of students. Implementing a high-quality, student-centered curriculum demands an assessment of the educational environment. The focus of this study was to compare the learning environments of first-year medical and dental students at a private Malaysian University using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire, a validated method for evaluating educational environments.

Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken with students who agreed to participate. The trial lasted three months. After obtaining consent from students for participation, demographic information was gathered. Students in the lecture hall were given physical copies of the DREEM questionnaire to assess their learning environment. A total of 225 students participated, and IBM SPSS version 23 was used to analyze the data. The Chi-square and Student t tests were employed to establish the existence of an association or difference between two variables.

Result: A total of 225 students were involved in this study showing 100% response rate. The total score indicated that the majority (84%) regarded the educational environment was outstanding, 15.56 percent had a more promising opinion, and a very small percentage (0.44%) believed the educational environment was terrible. In this study with noteworthy findings, medical students were happier with their lecturers and with their own academic abilities than dental students. The weakest 19 questions were identified. Most respondents had extremely favorable attitudes toward the educational environment, followed by a moderately favorable opinion. Less than 1% of pupils exhibited a negative attitude.

Conclusion: In this study, perceptions of the educational environment was satisfactory for both medical and dental students, but more positive for medical students. Measures must be taken to improve the scores and ensure that the scores are consistent across both faculties.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake and Associated Factors among Selected Security Personnel in Edo State, Nigeria

Andrew Ifeanyichukwu Obi, Janet Ogbonna, Major Usman Ogaba, Ekaete Tobin, Pius Ikenna Ononigwe, Faith Ireye, Alphonsus Rukevwe Isara, Regina Uwaoma Obi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 106-115
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030386

Background: Vaccination is a cost-effective public health intervention to prevent and or contain the spread of communicable diseases such as COVID-19. The level of uptake of vaccines across selected population such as security personnel is strategic towards attaining herd immunity. This study assessed the level of uptake of COVID-19 vaccination among security personnel in Edo State, Nigeria to aid planning for improved vaccine roll out among target population.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain quantitative data from 482 security personnel from selected Security Agencies in Benin City between 1st February 2021 and 31st May 2021. Data collected were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 statistical software with statistical significance set at p ˂ 0.050 and 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 41.5 (± 7.2) years. Three hundred and forty-four (71.4%) had positive attitude towards COVID 19 preventive measures. Furthermore, 242 (50.2%) had been vaccinated against Covid-19 respectively. The category of security agency was a significant determinant of COVID-19 vaccination with the odds of being vaccinated being higher among police officers (OR: 4.724; CI= 2.674- 8.344; p <0.001), Immigration Officers (OR: 3.401; CI=1.960 - 5.902; p < 0.001), FRSC (OR: 3.096; CI=1.785 - 5.374; p < 0.001) compared to EDSTMA Officers. Finally, the odds of being vaccinated was significantly lower among respondents with negative attitude (OR: 0.412; CI=0.270 - 0.629; p < 0.001) compared to respondents with positive attitude towards COVID-19 preventive measures.

Conclusion: A gap was identified between the attitude of security personnel towards COVID-19 preventive measures and their vaccination uptake. Strategic stakeholder engagement and continuous sensitization meetings are essential to help dispel myths and clarify misconceptions on COVID-19 vaccine for improved vaccination uptake among target population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of Variability Pattern Analysis for Malnutrition Information Score to Improve Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease

Muhammed Zubair, Shakeel khan, Usman Khalid, Muhammed Kashif khan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030387

Background: Morbidity and mortality envisaged by chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a health menace throughout the world. Complications, incidence, prevalence, the impact of dietary recommendations, risk factors, outcome, and management strategies have not been rationalized due to several adversities resulting in escalated death rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate and establish a malnutrition information score (MIS) as a means of ease of CKD prevention and progression. MIS underlies the consistencies in findings through MIS show higher values can be corroborated to recommend the augmentation parameters in utilizing MICS techniques and other healthcare types of equipments. 

Methods: A randomized, non-biased sampling of patients presenting to dialysis unit with their maintenance schedule program in the nephrology department of Medical Unit-3 of PIMS, Islamabad were introspected for inclusions. Personal history, BSF thickness and MAC values were measured, and MAMC was calculated by = MAC – (3.1416 x TSF). The study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology, PIMS, Islamabad for a duration of six months.

Results: The study conducted across 59 male patients and 33female patients indicate that males are more susceptible to CKD than females as evidenced by clinical stability of 67%. Appetite loss, degree of severity, Co-morbidity, BMI, MIS range, and clinical stability status of 100 study participants show variable indices indicating the stress on personal and family history of the patients. MIS pose as an indicator for determining the apt Malnutrition-Inflammation Complex Syndrome (MICS) and other types of equipments for treating CKD. 

Conclusion: CKD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis analyzed for dietary balance affirm the utility of MIS in determining the MICS and other types of healthcare equipments indirectly in ensuring reduction in morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Qualitative Study about the Psychosocial Issues of COVID-19 Perceived by the South Asian Bangladeshi Senior Immigrants Living in Toronto, Ontario

Qazi Shafayetul Islam, Nasima Akter

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 133-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030389

Background: People stayed home and got isolated during the pandemic time (COVID-19). The pandemic passed more than a year, and it is still ongoing. There is not enough information about the psychological and social issues of the COVID-19 on the South Asian senior immigrants living in Toronto.

Aim: The study aimed to explore the description of COVID-19 from the experience of the South Asian seniors and to understand the perceived psychosocial issues of COVID-19 on them. It helps policymakers develop adequate policies and initiatives for the South Asian Bangladeshi senior immigrants during and after the pandemic.

Methods: The study applied open-ended questions for the phone interview with 52 seniors (>55 years). It used thematic analysis for the interpretation of qualitative data. Each interview took 45-60 minutes to complete.

Results: The seniors described COVID-19 in medical, mental, and social aspects. They described COVID-19 as ‘viral and pandemic infections,’ ‘health problems,’ ‘lack of treatment,’ and ‘death.’ They also described COVID-19 as ‘worrying,’ ‘dangerous,’ ‘isolated society,’ ‘lack of recreation,’ ‘staying home like a prison,’ and ‘shut down everywhere.’ Many seniors felt lonely as the pandemic disconnected them from the family members and the outdoor activities.  They were also scared to get infected, were worried about seeing deaths and the shortage of vaccines worldwide and were sad as they could not meet people in person. Many seniors stayed home for months. They could not go outside for worship, doctors, shopping malls, and they felt that they had an unusual lifestyle.

Conclusion: Based on findings, adequate information, mental health supports, and virtual programs are needed to address the psychological and social issues of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Psychiatric Morbidities in Nigerian Men with LUTS Due to Prostatic Diseases

M. U. Dada, P. T. Adegun, A. A. Idowu, A. E. Omonisi, L. O. Oluwole, A. Obadeji

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 146-152
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030390

Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and significant factors associated with psychiatric morbidity in men with LUTS secondary to prostatic diseases in a tertiary health centre in a developing country.

Study design: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study.

Place and duration: The urology unit of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study period was from 1stJanuary2018 to 31stDecember2019.

Methodology:  Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess for   psychiatric morbidity among 224 patients with LUTS. While,  International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was used to assess the severity of LUTS.  The data was analysed using SPSS version 20.

Results:  The prevalence of depression and anxiety were 17% and 9.8% respectively. The mean IPSS and PSA scores of the respondents were 19.95±8.06 and 31.48±37.03 respectively. The only factors found to be significantly associated with depression were use of alcohol by the respondents (T-test = .058, P = .01, CI = -2.885 ˗˗ -0.391) and high scores on IPSS (T-test = .765, P value = .003, CI = 1.436 ˗˗ 6.995).  While the factors found to be associated with anxiety disorders were alcohol use by the respondents (T-test =2.661, P = .033, CI = -2.519 ˗˗  -0.103) and high PSA  scores (T-test =9.473, P value = .036, CI = -28.942 ˗˗ -1.068).

Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high rate of psychiatric morbidity among patients with LUTS. Main factors associated with these morbidities were alcohol use, severity of the LUTS and high PSA scores. Assessment of psychiatric morbidity in patients with LUTS using simple psychological instruments will help in early detection and prompt treatment of psychological morbidities. 

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Management and Treatment of a Male Patient Suffering from Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) or Pulmonary Disease

Muhammed Zubair, Nighat Fatima

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 24-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030379

The present study is a case report of a man who was initially diagnosed with “interstitial lung disease” (ILD) or pulmonary disease which is supposed to be an umbrella term for a large group of disorders responsible for scattered fibrosis of the lungs. It is an irreversible scenario. The causative factors for the above mentioned diseased conditions are yet to be found, and all of them are grouped under interstitial pneumonias. The patient underwent detailed clinical investigations on several parameters such as CT pulmonary angiography, Lower limb venous Doppler, D-dimer test, Real Time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) for the novel SARS-CoV -2, Ultra-sonography (USG) of the abdomen, C-reactive proteins (CRP), complete blood count (CBC), Legionella antigen test, specific Mycoplasma IgM antibody assay, the total parameters of the renal functioning test of the blood serum, pro-calcitonin (PCT) level, and the acute coronary syndrome panel (POCT). After detailed investigations the patient was diagnosed with ILD and medications specific to the disease was prescribed. The medications that were prescribed were ceftriaxone with injection pantoprazole, paracetamol, levofloxacin, enoxaparin, amiodiprine, and furosemide. He was also advised to continue his own other medications along with these and contact at the emergency services of the hospital in case of any urgency. He was also advised for follow up visit. The patient responded to the applied therapeutic interventions and survived from the suffering. Thus, here a detailed case reporting has been conducted with the particular disease along with its diagnosis and management.

Open Access Case Study

Analysis of Work Posture with Complaints of Musculoskeletal Disorder on Stack Emission Sampling Activities

Kurnia Murbowaseso, Eni Mahawati, Slamet Isworo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 55-78
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i1030383

Objective and Background: The process of sampling the air quality of chimney emissions is a job that has the risk of causing work-related disorders and diseases. This study examines the relationship between the risk of ergonomics in work postures with material safety data sheet complaints on sampling activities.

Methods: Analytical observational method with cross sectional approach. using the Nordic Body Map questionnaire and the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) assessment sheet. Primary data and secondary data were analyzed using Rank Spearman statistical test.

Results: The level of risk of ergonomics in work postures at each stage of activity varies from low risk (value 2-3), medium (value is 4-7), and high (value 8 -10). Meanwhile, the level of MSDscomplaints was low (score 28-49) 11.1%, moderate complaints (score 50-70) were 44.4% and high complaints (score 71-91) were 44.4%. The results of the analysis test showed that there was a relationship between the level of ergonomics risk of working postures at 6 stages of activity, namely pre sampling, side preparation, climbing stairs, raising equipment, lowering equipment, and descending stairs (p-value < 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the other 4 stages of activity, namely sampling with a probe, sampling with a gas analyzer, measuring water content, and measuring particulate levels, there is no relationship between the level of ergonomics in work posture and complaints of MSDs, to reduce the risk of M.S.D.s complaints, efforts can be made through redesigning work stations that are not ergonomic with the use of tools to reduce workload.