Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Cancer Knowledge and Mammography Uptake among Women Aged 40 Years and Above in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

Grace Okaliwe, Glory Mbe Egom Nja, Isaac Olushola Ogunkola, Regina Idu Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i830351

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women globally. Early screening remains a critical approach to reducing morbidity and mortality. Mammography, one of such screening tools, is vital in improving outcomes and survival. However, poor knowledge and ignorance have been touted as major barriers to health services uptake in Low/Middle-income countries. This study therefore determined breast cancer knowledge and mammography uptake among women aged ≥40 years in Calabar Municipality.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to elicit information from 365 women that were randomly selected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20. The results were descriptively presented by frequencies and percentages. Pearson Chi-Square (ꭓ2) analysis was performed to detect the association between variables at 5% level of significance (p-value of ≤ 0.05).

Results: Majority of the 365 study participants 121 (33.3%) were aged between 40 – 44 years and had attained tertiary level of education 231 (63.2%). Most of the respondents had low knowledge score 214 (58.6%) of breast cancer and mammography. Only 36 (9.9%) of the respondents have had mammography out of which most 22 (61.0%) used it only once. Knowledge level of breast cancer and mammography was statistically significantly associated with uptake (p = .00001). Conversely knowledge of breast cancer and mammography was not statistically significantly associated with educational attainment (p = .54).

Conclusions: Knowledge level of breast cancer and uptake of mammography among women aged ≥40 in Calabar Municipality was very poor. The need to increase awareness about breast cancer and breast cancer screening are highly advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Cutaneous Mycoses among Boarding Secondary Schools Students in Coast Region, Tanzania

Emmanuel B. Deogratias, Kennedy D. Mwambete

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i830352

Aims: To determines the prevalence and risk factors for cutaneous mycoses (CMs) among boarding secondary schools’ students in Coast Region, Tanzania

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional survey-based study involving boarding secondary schools’ students. Cluster sampling technique was employed for data collection using semi-structured questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: It involved students from both government and private boarding secondary schools in a period between January and June 2020.

Methodology: The study involved 320 students (equal number of females and males). The questionnaire inquired on these key issues: contraction of CMs and/or other skin related infections, and risk factors associated with CMs, previous exposure to antifungal agents, reasons for the use, duration of use and its outcome. Obtained information was analyzed using the SPSS version 20. Multivariate and logistic regression were employed to determine association among investigated variables. Differences among the variables were considered statistically significant when p<0.05.

Results: Prevalence of CMs among the students was 61.5% (n = 197/320). Higher proportion of students in government schools had CMs as compared to private ones (35.9% vs. 25.6%; p <0.01). The former schools were twice more likely to contract CMs (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 1.53-3.86, p <0.01) than those in private schools. Correlations existed between students’ ages and recurrence of CMs (Pearson’s R = 0.044; p<0.01); and between students’ bodyweights and prevalence of CMs (R= 0.139; p = 0.02). Association existed between non-adherence to antifungal treatment and prevalence of CMs (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: High prevalence of CMs was revealed among students, which was relatively higher among males than females. Risk factors for CMs included poor personal hygiene and sanitary conditions, students’ ages and bodyweights. Education on risk factors for CMs among the respondents is required for earlier, prevention and control. Further studies involving larger samples size are highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Causes of Low Vision and Blindness among Adult Patients Attending Eye Clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in South East, Nigeria

O. A. I. Otuka, N. C. Ekeleme, E. N. Akaraiwe, E. C. Iwuoha, L. I. Eweputanna, A. Kalu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i830353

Background: Low vision and blindness are significant public health issues worldwide. They result in educational, occupational, and social challenges in the affected persons. Their care givers/ families are also severely affected. There is however limited data on the magnitude of visual impairment in Aba, South East Nigeria.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness among adult patients attending eye clinic in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was an institutional-based retrospective, descriptive study involving 457 patients who attended Abia State University Teaching Hospital eye clinic between April and September 2018. Data was obtained from patient’s hospital records within the period under study and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Statistical significance was set at a P-value of < 0.05.

Results: Data of 457 ophthalmic patients who met the inclusion criteria for this study were analyzed. Mean age of respondents was 48.5 ± 17.7 years. A total 5.4% of the patients had bilateral low vision, while 30.2% and 7% had monocular and bilateral blindness respectively. Cataract-related diagnosis, refractive errors and glaucoma (28.4%, 28.2% and 14.7%) respectively were the major causes of low vision and blindness among the patients. Statistically significant association was found between respondent’s diagnosis and age as well as occupation (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Results from this study will aid in planning low vision & blindness preventive programs and improving eye care services.