Open Access Original Research Article

Radiographic Anatomy of the Abdomen of Local Breed Dogs

Kabkia Dieudoné, Kadja Mireille, Gbande Pihou, Sonhaye Lantam, Agba Kondi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630332

Objectives: The anatomical area that constitutes the abdomen is an area that is often subject to serious conditions. These diseases can affect the digestive and urogenital systems and radiography is a complementary examination of choice to refine the diagnosis. This study had for objective, to realize a radio anatomical atlas of the Abdomen in order to facilitate the comprehension and the interpretation of the radiographic pictures of the dog.

Methodology: To do this, radiographs were performed on the Abdomen of 30 healthy dogs including 15 females and 15 males, (all of local breed) received at the radiology room.

Results: At the end of the study, the best normal pictures by anatomical region and by incidence of the normal pictures of the Abdomen, were selected constituting a reference database in radiographic anatomy of this animal. Each radiograph is commented and annotated, facilitating the understanding of the images. These radiographic images will serve as a basis for the interpretation of radiographic images of the abdomen in the dog.

Conclusion: These radiographs will serve as a basis for the interpretation of radiographic images of the abdomen of the dog.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Eclampsia among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Antenatal Clinic in Ikenne LGA, Ogun State, Nigeria

Eniola D. Makinde, Dora O. Akinboye

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630333

Background: Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy; it is major global health problem and a common medical complication of pregnancy among pregnant women residing in low and middle income countries. It is the development of convulsions and or coma that is not related to other cerebral conditions during pregnancy or in the postpartum period in women with signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. It is responsible for the majority of poor maternal and fetal outcomes globally. In many developing countries such as Nigeria, eclampsia remains a significant contributor to adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes despite all measures to reduce its incidence and impact.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of eclampsia among pregnant women attending a tertiary antenatal clinic in Ikenne Remo, Ogun state, Nigeria.

Study Design: Quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey design.

Methodology: Ninety four (94) pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at a tertiary hospital in Ikenne Remo, Ogun state participated in the study. The level of knowledge was assessed by administering a quantitative instrument developed in a structured close ended questionnaire form. The questionnaire had two (2) sections; Section A: Socio demographic and Section B: Knowledge.

Results: Findings indicated that majority of the pregnant women, 41.5% had fair level of knowledge of eclampsia while 33% had high level of knowledge and 25.5% had poor level of knowledge of eclampsia. The study identified that age, religion, ethnicity and parity were significantly related with level of knowledge of the pregnant women while educational level of the pregnant women wasn’t significantly related with their level of knowledge about eclampsia.

Conclusion: The study illustrates that knowledge of eclampsia are limited among pregnant women attending a tertiary antenatal clinic in Ogun state, Nigeria; there are gaps in knowledge regarding the causes, danger signs and risk factors of the condition. Therefore, health care providers should be equipped with appropriate skills and relevant materials to provide proper prenatal education and sensitization to improve maternal and perinatal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

PH, CRP as Prognostic Indicators for the Success of Treatment with Non-invasive Ventilation in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Failure Type II

Hiba Alkhayer, Alkassem Alkhayer, Mohamad Imad Khayat, Malek Hijazieh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630334

Background: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) provides an alternative option to the initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure, avoiding the associated adverse events.

Objective: the present study aimed to assess the outcome of the patients who were initially treated with NIMV and identify the prognostic predictive value of PH and CRP for NIMV failure.

Materials and methods: This was observational analytical study conducted in the Department of Pulmonology in Tishreen University Hospital –Lattakia- Syria from January 2019 to January 2020. Adult patients with the diagnosis of acute on chronic respiratory failure type 2 were enrolled in the study.

Results: A total of 67 patients with acute on chronic respiratory failure type 2 were included in the study. The median age was 63 years and 62.7% were male. The patients in the PH group (7.20-7.25) presented higher rates of mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) which represented 25% and 50% respectively. The NIMV failure rate was 22.4%. Frequency of patients with PH≤ 7.31, ΔPH ≤  0.04, or CRP ≥53.5 were higher in NIMV failure group; (33.3% vs. 3.8%, p: 0.001), (46.7% vs. 23.1% -, p: 0.03), and (53.3% vs. 32.7%, p: 0.04) respectively. Independent predictors for NIMV failure were: PH≤ 7.31(OR  3.3[0.6-7.8], p:0.01) and  ΔPH ≤ 0.04(OR

2.1[1.1-3.9], p: 0.02).

Conclusion: NIMV is an effective treatment for hypercapnic respiratory failure. Identification independent predictors for NIMV failure may be useful to avoid the possible complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosecurity Practices and Potential Biological Risks in Poultry Farms in Agnibilekrou and in Peri Urban Areas of Abidjan

M. C. Kadja, S. Sourokou Sabi, C N’guessan, F.X Laleye, Y. Kane, Y. Kaboret

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630335

This study aimed to evaluate biosecurity practices and potential biological risks in poultry farms in Agnibilékrou and in the peri-urban areas of Abidjan. It took place from August to December 2008. A total of 219 poultry farms were surveyed, including 119 in Sector 3 and 100 in Sector 4. The results of this study show that only 22.7% of the farms have fences, 6.7% have roto-tanks and 30.3% have foot baths for the entrance and protection of the breeding area. In 22.7% of cases, poultry carcasses are thrown into the open air and in 25% of farms they are consumed. Nevertheless, 91% of these farms have well maintained surroundings. Waste is disposed of in 96% of open-air farms, poultry corpses in 69% of farms. The water consumed by the birds is surface water in 57% of the farms. In 81% of the farms, the birds are fed by divagation and in 19% of the cases by semi-divagation. Feed is soiled in 89% of farms. Poultry carcasses are thrown away in 43.5% of farms near the farm. Faced with such situations, the Ivorian government should strengthen training, awareness and encourage all actors in the poultry sector, especially farmers, to implement good biosecurity practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors and Outcome of Acute Poisoning in Childrens

Abdul Sami Qureshi, Farhana Zafar, Madiha Waseem, Muhammad Taimor, . Sobia

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630336

Objective: To determine the risk factors and outcome of acute poisoning in children at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi.

Study design: Cross sectional study

Place and duration of study: Department of Emergency Medicine, Dr Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.  From January 2019 to January 2021

Methodology: The patients (n=136) were selected of either gender with the precise age group of twelve years. All the patients selected were meeting the inclusion criteria and enrolled with a history of poisoning exposure within 24 hours of arriving at the hospital's emergency department. The name of the toxin, the time since ingestion of the toxic substance, factors prompting coincidental harming like age, ill-advised capacity of hurtful specialists, for example, lamp oil and blanch in soda bottles, simple access of kids to meds utilized by different individuals from the family, mother's schooling, working moms, financial status were completely assembled from the guardians or orderlies as referenced in the Performa. In general, people were poisoned primarily from within their own homes. Non-accidental poisoning cases were omitted. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data.

Results: Out of 136 patient enrolled in this study mean age was 5.2+2.9 years, 77(56.6%) were male and 59(43.4%) were female and mean time of presentation was 2.3+1.7 hours. Most common risk factor was unsafe storage of chemicals (n=98) (72.1%), followed by education level of mother (n=)65 (47.8%), inadequate supervision of child (n=60) (44.1%), non authorative parenting (n=51) (37.5%), working mothers (n=41) (30.1%), lack of family support (n=30) (22.1%), developmental delay (n=11) (8.1%) and poisonous plant in home garden (n=6) (4.4%). Outcome mainly depends upon type of poisoning and time interval between poisoning and presentation to the hospital, 26 (19.11%) were discharged safely from ER, while 45 (33.08%) admit in wards and 48 (35.29%)  were admitted in Intensive Care and 17 (12.5%) were expired in ER.

Conclusion: In this study we have concluded that number of accidental poisoning are often occur in toddler and school going children. The major risk factor of acute poisoning found was unsafe storage or easy accessibility of house hold chemicals, second one was low level of education of parents, than non-authorative parenting,  and working mothers and lack of family support. The outcome mainly depend upon time interval from ingestion of poison to presentation at hospital and type poisonous agent taken, that can lead to the need of specialized care, prolong hospital stay and sometimes results in death of a child.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opinions of the Healthcare Providers Regarding a Medically Oriented Sri Lankan Teledrama

H. T. D. W. Ariyarathna

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630337

Introduction: A considerable portion of the ethics related to the medical curriculum is taught to the students by a department of forensic medicine. Medical professionals generally depict good ethical behavior while any deviations from the ethical practices negatively affect the intended health care. Ethical behaviour in the professional setting cannot be compromised by healthcare providers as it is a cornerstone of providing the best possible health care. “Television reality’ is a term that needs to be explored by medical professionals once the health care sector is being portrayed in it.

Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to investigate how medical professionals perceive their respective characters when they are portrayed through the eyes of others via a teledrama. Other goals included determining how different strata of health professionals felt about the teledrama that was aired, what they thought about health professionals' ethical behaviour, and whether health professionals liked how they were portrayed in the drama.

Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study completed at a tertiary care hospital. The questionnaire was pretested and designed to be a self-administered questionnaire comprised of multiple-choice questions. The participants were allowed to watch an episode of the teledrama before being asked to complete a questionnaire. The findings were analyzed using the SPSS version 23. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. 

Results: 401 people took part in total (doctors: nurses: other = 109:197:95). The male-to-female ratio was 1:3 (males, n = 113 (28.2%) and females n=288 (71.8%). Only 6.7% (n=27) of participants thought the teledrama was beneficial to society, while the majority thought the opposite.  Approximately two-thirds of the participants (n= 268) expressed dissatisfaction with the drama. According to 56.1% (n=225) of the participants, the producer intended to humiliate the medical profession.   34.7 % of participants (n=139) thought the teledrama should be banned. 

Conclusion: It is one of the prime duties of health professionals to safeguard the medical profession. At the same time the freedom of the producers of teledramas should equally be respected. Anyhow the overall findings were consistent with the fact that a clear majority of participants are hesitant to continue watching such programmes because they negatively portray professionals and the health profession. As a result, before approving the telecast, a scrutinizing mechanism should be established through a responsible body of the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Precise Intraoperative Lymph Node Identification by Isosulfan Blue of Occult Neck Lymph Node Metastases for Decision to Convert from Supraomohyoid Neck Dissection to Comprehensive Neck Dissection in Early-Stage Oral Cancer

Somjin Chindavijak

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630338

Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of peritumoral isosulfan blue dye injection for localization of suspected metastatic lymph nodes.

Materials and methods: The study included all patients diagnosed with early-stage oral cancer between January 2018 and March 2020. After elevation of the skin flap, the primary site was injected peritumorally with isosulfan blue 0.3-0.5 cc at 1 cm intervals and massaged.  The time at which any draining nodes turned blue was recorded and the node was then excised for frozen section.  After which supraomohyoid neck dissection was performed.  The frozen sections were stained with H&E and analyzed for presence of metastases. Negative sections were further analyzed using immunohistochemistry stains.  Sensitivity, specificity and time of identification suspected metastatic lymph node were analyzed .

Results: Nineteen patients with early-stage oral cancer were included.  The majority (78.4%) presented with tongue lesions. The mean injection amount administered was 3.62±0.83 cc, and the number of injections around the tumor were 10.26±2.31. Mean duration from time of injection to the identification of a blue node was 19.26±15.99 min.  Nodes at Level I of the neck were the most common identified as blue nodes (57.8%).  Statistical analysis comparing pathological findings with blue node identification revealed this technique has a sensitivity of 71.4% with specificity of 91.7% and an overall accuracy of 84.2% in identify metastasis lymph node. 

Conclusion: Isosulfan blue injection of primary oral tumors demonstrated a high level of efficiency in identifying metastatic lesions in draining lymph nodes. This technique may be helpful in deciding intraoperatively whether to convert from supraomohyoid neck dissection to  comprehensive neck dissection  .

Open Access Short Communication

Using Ultraviolet A to Check Inanimate Objects for Thorough Cleanliness during COVID-19 Pandemic

Charles Micallef

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 61-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2021/v19i630339

Introduction: Clean surroundings present lesser chances of catching Novel Coronavirus. Ultraviolet A (UVA, black light) flashlights can reveal things which the eye may miss but hardly anything is documented on the internet about UV and Covid-19 Pandemic when it comes to hygiene of inanimate objects. This report explores how one can detect uncleanliness using a UV flashlight. The formulated hypothesis questions several scenarios when this gadget could prove useful. Examples include: schools, workplace, childcare centres, bars, restaurants, hotels, public restrooms, hospitals, elderly homes, public transport and items like gloves and stretchers. Materials and methods: A clean ceramic bathroom tile was selected and photographed. UVA was emitted on the same tile using a UV flashlight and at the same time a small part was cleaned with a single stroke of a wet wipe and photographed again. External light was undimmed. Results: On comparison, the tile revealed that it was not clean enough because fluorescent green streaks were visible. A cleaner stripe was made after just one stroke with a wet wipe. Another observation showed that tile spacing can be problematic when cleaning. Conclusion: Despite some limitations, a UV flashlight may be useful for the visual monitoring of cleaning completion on high touch surfaces.