Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Study of Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Infection during Lockdown Due to COVID-19 Pandemics in Uttarakhand

Jyoti Chandola, Pooja Singh, Sandeep Singh, Shilpa Semwal, Komal Gupta, Narotam Sharma

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230279

Objectives: The purpose of this research was to study the epidemiology of H1N1 influenza A virus infection during lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in Uttarakhand.

Methodology: An analysis of primary data, obtained from DNA Labs-A Center for Applied Sciences, Dehradun after detection of the throat and nasal swabs by RT-PCR method. The total number of samples were 102 which were collected from the suspected cases for influenza like illness (ILI) in and around Uttarakhand region in different age groups. Molecular Characterization was done for all the cases. The data contained the cases from the month of March, 2020 to the month of November, 2020.

Results: Results showed that after the onset of lockdown, the number of positive cases for H1N1 influenza viral infection were less in comparative to the negative cases (30 positive cases and 72 negative cases). Age group from 21 to 40 years and above 70 years became infected with the H1N1 swine flu and suffered with Category C symptom.

Conclusions: This research provides the significant findings for the epidemiological study of H1N1 influenza viral infection during lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemics in Uttarakhand. It could be said that due to the similarities of the symptoms of H1N1 influenza A virus and COVID-19, all the cases were referred to COVID-19 testing due to its impact even though that case could have been suffering from any other disease including H1N1 as the symptoms similarities between these two viruses are almost the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neurodegenerative Observations on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats Following Mercury Chloride Induced Cortical Damage in Adult Wistar Rats

A. J. Ajibade, P. B. Fakunle, T. S. Owolabi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230280

Background: Mercury is a widespread environmental and industrial pollutant that is used in food preservation, cosmetics, pharmaceutical companies and laboratories. The aim of this present study was to investigate the possible effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure on the cerebral cortex of adult wista rats; and also to evaluate the effects of mercury on biochemical parameters.

Materials and Methods: Thirty six (36) adult wistar rats of both sexes, weighing between 110 g-300 g were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D with nine animals per group. The animals in groups B, C, and D were administered mercury chloride orally at the concentration of 0.2 mg/kg, 0.4mg and 0.5 mg/kg body weights respectively while group (A) served as control and was given distilled water. The administration lasted for a period of 21 days.  The brain was carefully removed and weigh immediately with sensitive balance, part of it was homogenized for biochemical analysis (MDA, GSH and NO). The remaining part was then fixed in 10% formol calcium fluid and processed for histopathological studies using H and E stains.

Results: The results revealed a decrease in animal body weights from all the groups in comparison with the control group (A) which showed an insignificant decrease (P>0.05), group B showed an insignificant decrease (P>0.05) while group C and D showed statistically significant decrease (P<0.05). The brain weights revealed statistically insignificant decrease in the treated groups when compared with the control group. The biochemical evaluation revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in the level of MDA (Malondialdehyde) in the treated groups when compared with the control group, GSH (Glutathione) revealed statistically significant decrease (P<0.05) in the treated groups and NO (Nitric Oxide) revealed statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in the treated groups as compared to the control group. The histological observation revealed degenerative changes in the cortex of treated groups that were characterized by clustered Pyknotics pyramidal neurons that appear with fragmented cytoplasm and condensed nuclei within soma. Perineural spaces were seen surrounding degenerating neurons. Axons and dendrites are scarcely appreciable around neurons in these groups.

Conclusion:  The findings from this study showed that ingestion of mercury chloride has potentially deleterious effects on brain as shown in the histopathology, cellular loss in the brain of wistar rat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Self-Examination (BSE) among Women in an Urban City in Abia State, Nigeria

Ejiro C. Iwuoha, Ngozi C. Ekeleme, Chika L. Uche

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230281

Background: Early diagnosis of breast cancer has been associated with better outcomes in diagnosed cases. Breast self-examination (BSE) is an inexpensive but effective method of identifying breast masses that may be cancerous.

Objectives: To identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of BSE among women in Abia State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 415 women in Aba, a commercial city in Abia State. Pretested questionnaires were administered on women who consented to participate in the study. Analysis of data was done using IBM SPSS Version 20.

Results: The mean age of the 415 participants was 36.7±9.9 years. About 9% of respondents had a positive family history of breast cancer. Majority of the women; 76% (331) had heard of BSE with highest (34%) source of information being radio and television. While 67.5% knew how to do BSE, only 32% knew the right frequency for performing BSE. Though majority of women agreed that it was necessary to see a doctor for breast examination; only 39% had done so previously while 54% felt having a doctor examine their breast would be embarrassing. Only 28% of the women had practiced BSE in the past. Reasons given for not practicing BSE were lack of knowledge and forgetfulness.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated high knowledge and good attitude but poor practice of BSE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Enumeration of Pathogens Associated with Urinary Tract Infection: Current Scenario and Its Medical Relevance

Pooja Singh, Jyoti Chandola, Manoj Singh Shahi, Narotam Sharma, Komal Gupta, Sandeep Singh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230282

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common among community acquired infections worldwide affecting men as well as women, many reports suggested that uropathogens are becoming more resistant towards antibiotics, which can cause various problems during treatment.

Methods: In this study, 48 samples were collected from the suspected patients and these samples were subjected to various clinical evaluations.

Results: Among them 29 were females and 19 were males, in the studied cases E. coli (48.3%) was most frequently observed pathogens, S. aureus (29.03%).Among antibiotics, Tigecyclin (TGC) was the most effective antibiotic against all the three isolated bacteria, about 100% of bacteria showed the sensitivity towards it. E. coli was found to be the  most resistant bacteria against Tetracycline (TET) (66.6%) followed by Amoxiclav (AMC) (60%), Fosfomycin (Fo) (53.3%), Piperacilllin (PIP) (53.3%), Cefepime (CPM) (53.3%). Among K. pneumonia isolates had shown resistance against Tetracycline (TET) (57.1%), Fosfomycin (FO) (57.1%), Piperacillin (PI) (57.1%), Cephalexin (CZ) (57.1%) and Amikacin (AK) (57.1%). Staphylococcus aureus had shown maximum resistance against Tetracycline (TET) (66.5%), Co-amoxiclav (AMC) (66.5%) followed by Chloramphenicol (55.4%) and Cefepime (CPM) (55.4%).

Conclusion: In conclusion UTI infection rates are higher among females, E. coli was the most causative agents of UTI and the emergence of resistance in bacteria is probably due to the overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic Tigecyclin could be the drug of choice for the treatment of UTI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Impact of Long-Lasting Changes in Energy Homeostasis and Nutrient Sensing on Nutritional Programming of Hypothalamus in Rats

Shimaa Mohammed Hasnin Aboelnaga, Fahmida Khatoon

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230283

Background: The diseases due to nutritional deficiencies or imbalanced diet can be due to different factors. These factors can be biological or environmental. The study indicated that there will be increase risks of acquiring diseases as a result of irregular intake of diet. These risks include the increased risk of diseases such as liver abnormality, hypertension, lipids deposition, and other diseases.

Methodology: The databases used for the collection of secondary information include Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Besides, the keywords used for the searching of relevant research articles include “experimental rats, nutritional deficiencies. Hypothalamus, mechanisms studies, gene ontology, metabolic syndromes”. There were the use of female rats (n=8) and the weight was ranged between 200 to 250 grams. The experimental rats were placed in a cycle of 12 h light/dark. An adequate amount of water and food was provided for about one week to the rats before starting the experiment. Enzymatic procedures were used for the analysis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. Glucose concentrations in the blood samples were also assessed using the glucose meter. The insulin levels were also measured by using the assay kits. The hybridisation, scanning, and normalization of the data were also done. The extracted RNA from the hypothalamus was transcribed by using the “Superscript II RNAseH- Reverse-Transcriptase”. The t-test was also performed using statistical software. The groups of genes and their altered expressions were studied after the malnutrition conditions. The results obtained through PCR were expressed in the form of average and standard deviation values [1]. The mRNA expression levels in the samples of the hypothalamus were also assessed. The data were compared using the student test. The significance levels were measured at p < 0.05.

Findings: The findings of the study also indicated that the transcription of co-regulators is also link with the nutritional and temporal cues to the metabolism process by means of their association with circadian clock. The findings revealed that the hypothalamic circuits and its nutritional programming plays significant role in the regulation of energy homeostasis which is a major factor of obesity development in association with malnutrition in early life development.

Conclusion: Conclusively, it has been identified that the deficiency of nutrients during developmental period such as prenatal and postnatal is linked with the enhanced risk of different types of diseases in childhood as well as in adulthood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indoor Air Quality in Benghazi’s Hospitals and Its Impact among Patients

Hadir Gawili, Hawa A. Bodabos, Wafa A. Al-Awami, Ahmed O. Al-Gargouri, Yahia F. Alhegazi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 39-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230288

Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a very important topic; it contains a variety of factors: temperature, humidity, the presence of chemicals and the quality of outdoor air brought inside are typical metrics used to define IAQ. However, with poor quality usually lead to Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and other serious symptoms.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate Indoor air diseases and their symptoms of SBS among patients in ten hospitals in Benghazi, Libya and focusing on awareness/knowledge of patients and their education level regarding some pollutants and noise pollution.

Study Design: This paper is a cross sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in December 2019 to September 2020 in Benghazi, Libya.

Methodology: Performed sub analysis statistics have chosen 150 patients randomly in 10 hospitals (polyclinics/health centers) to fill out questionnaire about the most common symptoms are related to indoor air value in hospitals by also using the observational checklist.

Results: Mostly females 54% were of age above 46 years, 31.3% of the participants were university education level, 69.3% have suffered from different type of diseases, which are hypertension, diabetes, and asthma, and most pollutants were inducted from vehicle traffic 63.3%.

Conclusion: the study indicated the highest contaminates impact and the health criteria in all ten hospitals were under the study, which are; temperature and humidity, PM, other chemical pollutants and noise effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Emergency: Faux Healthcare Service Causes Distress and Life Dissatisfaction

Amitab Bhattacharjee, Vikram Bansal, Mohammad Khairul Islam Juman

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i1230290

Background and Aims: In Bangladesh, a significant number of individuals experienced a faux coronavirus test, especially at the profit oriented private hospitals or clinics during the COVID-19 emergency. Therefore, the prime purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of healthcare service faux pas on the mental health of Bangladeshi people during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, the current study even explored the changes in life satisfaction of Bangladeshi individuals due to the faux SARS-CoV-2 tests in the country. Moreover, the study also dealt with the satisfaction of the people on the healthcare service during the COVID-19 emergency in Bangladesh. 

Study Design: The current research was conducted as a descriptive and bi-monthly cross-sectional study and used the snowball sampling technique to collect the survey data in Bangladesh.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was employed in Dhaka division and Comilla division of Bangladesh between June and July in 2020.

Methodology: In this study, we surveyed 393 Bangladeshi individuals from two divisions of the country. We measured mental & physical health (SF12), depression (PHQ2), anxiety (GAD2), distress (K6), life satisfaction and overall satisfaction on healthcare service. Survey data was analyzed on STATA platform to find the study findings.

Results: This research found that Bangladeshi people experienced lower levels of mental and physical health conditions with the mean (STD) values of 23.1 (6.9) and 37.2 (9.1) respectively. Among the study participants, female individuals (60.05%) were mostly dissatisfied with the COVID-19 emergency healthcare service and dealt with more severe mental and physical disorders than male persons (39.95%) in the country. In this perspective, the study explored a dramatic increase in the mental stress and steady decline in life satisfaction of Bangladeshi individuals due to the false COVID-19 test certificates. Therefore, most of them had to go through multiple coronavirus tests to confirm the infected status. Additionally, participants visited at private hospitals for SARS-CoV-2 emergency support had higher levels of distress and dissatisfaction on the private healthcare services. Finally, the study found literally poor life satisfaction among all participants.  

Conclusion: The study found mental distress and life dissatisfaction caused by a private healthcare service faux pas in Bangladesh. So, this study suggests that a surge in the private healthcare service faux pas during or post coronavirus pandemic needs sustainable policy standards by the Government and nongovernment concerns. Fruitfully, the proper implementation of new policies especially for the private healthcare organizations is indeed essential to ensure a stress free healthy healthcare environment as well as higher life satisfaction for every individual in the country.