Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrition Food Labeling in the Saudi Market between Compliance and Relaxing Policy

Amal AlMughthem, Hoda Jradi, Amen Bawazir

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530200

Background: With increased demand for prepackaged food, the nutrient content of those products has increased especially fat, sugar, and sodium. We aimed to assess the compliance of nutritional labeling and to analyze the stated nutritional components as presented on prepackaged food products in Saudi market.

Methods: A total of 1153 foods were randomly sampled from fourteen stores. Nutritional information was taken from nutrient declarations present on food labels and assessed through a comparison of mean levels and assess compliance with Saudi Food and Drug Authority regulations.

Results: Overall, of the total number of products surveyed, 88% displayed nutritional facts, while 12% did not. Of the total products that had nutritional facts, only 38% met SFDA requirements while 97% disclosed the four key nutritional elements (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat). In total, almost one third of the products had a high fat content, 40% were high in sugar and 20% were high in Sodium. We found also, 20% listed hydrogenated fat in their ingredient information, 90% of which was fully hydrogenated, while 10% was partially hydrogenated.

Conclusion: There was a high percentage of products that displayed nutritional facts, but only a small percentage complied with SFDA's recent regulations. Food reformulation could have an extraordinary potential to overcome the increase in nutrition-related chronic disease in Saudi Arabia, and the information acquired from this paper provides an overview of thinking about the food supply as a major source needed for a national intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among First Year Female Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southeastern Nigeria

Usanga Victor Udoh, Kalu Michael Erem, Ibiam Gideon Ama, Eze Ibe Kiran, Azi Simon Onyema, Ukwah Boniface Nwofoke

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530201

Aim: To determining the prevalence  of Candida  albicans  and  Trichomonas  vaginalis  infections  among  first  year female  students  of  Ebonyi  State  University,  Abakaliki, a tertiary institution in Southeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional exposed case study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ultramodern Diagnostic Laboratory and Research Center, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, between June and November, 2019.

Methodology: The study involved 350 randomly selected students who consented to the study. Urine and high vagina swab (HVS) samples were carefully and aseptically collected using sterile universal containers and sterile cotton swabs respectively and analysed within 30 minutes of collection. Analytical methods including plate culturing, Gram  staining,  wet  mount  preparation  and  germ  tube  tests  were  used  to  diagnose  these  infections.

Results: The overall results showed a Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence of 11.1% and 6.0% respectively, while 2.0% were co-infected. The subjects within the age group 21-25 years had the highest prevalence of C.albicans and T. vaginalis, 14.5% and 8.5% respectively, while subjects between the ages of 26-30 years had the least prevalence;5.5% and 0% respectively. However, a weak association was observed between C. albicans infection and age difference of the subjects (P = .11), while a strong association was observed between age difference of subjects and T. vaginalis infection (P = .04).

Conclusion: The study confirms the prevalence of these infections among the students of Ebonyi State University. There is need for provision of proper counseling on sexual behavior and genital hygiene as well as public health education for creation of awareness and sensitization for students through regular seminars is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nutritional Status of School–age Children in Suburban Area of West Bengal

Purushottam Pramanik

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 17-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530202

Objective: Objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of primary school children between the age group 6 to 9 years considering reference values proposed by Indian Association of Pediatrics (IAP) and National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Methods: It is a cross sectional school base study. Six hundred and nine female and five hundred and twenty seven male primary school children were participated. Height- for- age, BMI- for- age and weight- for- age were used to assess nutritional status on considering reference values proposed by IAP and NCHS. Health status of the study population was assessed by Rohrer index. Prevalence of malnutrition was expressed in percentage.

Results: Significant percentage of children of both gender were suffering under-nutrition like stunting (IAP: female 56.3% and male 10.1%; NCHS:  female 64.9% and male 19%), thinness (IAP: female 36.4% and male 38.9%; NCHS: female 59.7% and male 61.5%) and underweight (IAP: female 37.5% and male 57.6%; NCHS: female 65.7% and male 73.6%). Over nutrition like higher body weight than standard (IAP: female 29.2% and male 18.1%; NCHS: female 15.5% and male 11.9%) and overweight and/or obesity was noted in study population. Under-nutrition was coincides with the finding of RI. More than 40% children of either gender were enjoy very low health status and more than 15% with high health status. Prevalence of malnutrition was higher in male than female children.

Conclusion: Present study highlights double burden of malnutrition among children living suburban area of Hooghly district. Thus to reduce both form of malnutrition it is essential to improve knowledge and awareness of personal hygiene and nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Serum Copper and Zinc Concentrations in Relation to Clinical Status among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS in North-West Ethiopia

Abera Admasu Birhanu, Bezuayehu Kerisew Semahagn, Endalkachew Nibret Simegn, Melaku Adal Eshetie, Abayneh Munshea Abitew

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 29-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530203

Aims: To evaluate serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentration in relation to clinical status among people living with HIV/AIDS for possible interventions.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between January and February 2013 in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Methods: Serum concentrations of Cu and Zn from 150 people living with HIV/AIDS were measured using a fully automated flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Besides, world health organization (WHO) clinical staging, CD4+ T-cell count, CD8+ T-cell count, hemoglobin determination, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were performed to evaluate the clinical status of study participants.

Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being serum Zn and Cu deficient was higher where there is no antiretroviral therapy (ART) than on ART (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.52-8.33, P=0.003 and 5.85, 95% CI=1.22-28.058, P= 0.027respectively).Similarly, the odds of being serum Zn deficient were significantly associated to lower BMI than normal (AOR=2.61, 95% CI=1.02 - 6.67, P= 0.046) and abnormal hemoglobin was found to be a factor to having high serum Cu/Zn ratio than normal hemoglobin (AOR=3.26, 95% CI=1.07 - 9.94, P= 0.038).

Conclusions: A relatively high percentage of subjects had serum Cu and Zn deficiency and high serum Cu/Zn ratio. Early evaluation of serum Cu and Zn deficiency should be carried out and mineral supplementation along with antiretroviral treatment should be provided for pre-ART, malnourished and anemic people living with HIV/AIDS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regions and Sub-regions Dysfunctions in Alzheimer’s during Rest

K. C. Usha Usha, Dr. H. N. Suma

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530205

Aims: Alterations in the cerebrum structurally and functionally are triggered largely due to an increase in neuro depressive brain disorders like Alzheimer’s. This study aims is to determine these alterations in the regions of the cerebrum which are significant and distinguishing in Alzheimer’s disease subjects compared to healthy. We employ the most potential resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) modality for this analysis.

Methodology: 24 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 25 Healthy Controlled (HC) subjects were evaluated with rs-fMRI which is more efficient in anticipating neuronal activity changes. Thus, obtained data of all subjects were preprocessed and components of larger networks to smaller regions were extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) method. Differences in resting-state connectivity were examined for 6 networks of interest viz., Auditory network, Central Executive network, Default mode network, Silence mode network, Sensory-motor network and Visual network and their regions, which are affected due to the common symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease-like memory, thinking and behavioral changes. Statistical analysis was done with one sample t-test to check the functional connectivity activations in Resting-State Networks (RSNs) and regions of both AD & HC groups at a threshold of T>2. Finally, to obtain the abnormal sub-regions in each of the RSNs of AD a two-sample t-test was carried out at a threshold of P < .03.

Results: Our method potentially identifies the functional connectivity alterations and core regions dysfunction amongst the major 6 RSNs in AD compared to HC subjects. The results also showed decreased connectivity in regions of sensory-motor and default mode networks increased connectivity in regions of central executive and silence mode network along with some of the sub-regions dysfunctions in AD.

Conclusion: Modifications in functional connectivity within the major RSNs and regions have been detected which serves as a capability to determine an early biomarker and examining the disease progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Male Adolescent Health-Risk Behaviors in East Kassala Locality - Kassala State, Sudan

Moneer Ali Abdallah, Sara Lavinia Braiar, Almoeiz Yousif Hammad

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i530206

Adolescent health risk behaviors are becoming a serious health care as adolescents engage in health-compromising behaviors at a high frequency in several crucial domains. One domain involves tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use. This is a cross section study covered 405 adolescents recruited randomly from Kassala locality, Kassala state, Sudan 2016, data was collected via closed ended standardized questionnaires. Pre testing was done to ensure quality survey instruments and fieldwork procedures were conducted. The fieldwork was coordinated by the Research Team Members, who will also provide the overall supervision during fieldwork to ensure quality and consistency among the teams. Ten data collectors was carrying out the fieldwork. Adolescent participating in the study showed variations in information about behavioral and psychological changes associated with adolescence, concerning the knowledge of the male adolescences regarding the associated with health changes with adolescences, about 89.5% knew those change and effects in general and 44% of them thought that the changes are physical while 25.2% thought that these changes are Psychological & emotional.