Open Access Review Article

COVID 19 Disease Caused by Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

Mehmet Unal, Tulay Irez

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430194

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large group from the Coronaviridae family that cause a variety of diseases, from the common cold to more serious clinical conditions such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This pathogen, which has a single chain, positive polarity and enveloped RNA viruses and causes bilateral interstitial pneumonia, has been associated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The resulting disease was defined as COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family of β-coronavirus. Studies have reported that SARS-CoV-2 uses membrane-bound ACE2 to access target cells. It is understood that the virus is transmitted from bats to people, from person to person by droplet or by the contact of the sick person with respiratory secretion materials into the mouth, nose and eye mucous membranes of healthy people. The most common clinical findings were fever (87.9%), cough (67.7%), and weakness (38.1%). The exact diagnosis of Covid-19 is based on virus isolation or RT-PCR positivity. The sensitivity of Thorax CT in the diagnosis of Covid-19 is 97%. Most of the treatments applied are symptomatic. Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Arbidol, Kaletra, lopinavir / ritonavir and remdesivir have been proposed as antiviral agents that can be used in Covid-19 therapy. In order to be protected, attention should be paid to social distance, personal hygiene, a healthy lifestyle, a good sleep pattern, regular exercise, adequate and balanced nutrition. Although the outbreak started in China, it is also quite common in Europe and America. As of May 2, 2020, case reports were made from 215 countries. It has been declared as a pandemic by WHO because of its high transmission rate. The situation is of great importance for global public health. In this paper, we have systematically reviewed the SARS-CoV-2 and this report aims to give information about the genetic structure, pathogenic feature, source of infection, routes of transmission, etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the virus and to be a reference for future research, measures and treatments. This review aims to investigate the most current trend of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Basic Knowledge of Childhood Diarrhea and Health-seeking Practices of Caregivers of Under-five Childrenin Calabar-South, Calabar, Nigeria

G. I. Ogban, E. M. Ndueso, A. A. Iwuafor, U. E. Emanghe, S. N. Ushie, R. I. Ejemot-Nwadiaro

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430195

Background: Diarrhea claims the lives of more children than malaria, HIV and measles combined. Prompt identification of symptoms of diarrhea by Caregivers and timely commencement of oral rehydration therapy using oral rehydration solution (ORS) or appropriate home available fluids are recommended corrective measures. This study was to ascertain the basick nowledge of childhood diarrhea and the health-seeking practices among caregivers of under-five children in Calabar- South, Calabar, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Six wards were chosen from the 12 wards in the study area by casting lot. Ten streets were randomly selected from each of the 6 wards. Eleven compounds were selected randomly per street to give a total of 660 compounds. A household with an under-five child or children was randomly selected per compound and therefore 660 Caregivers were enlisted on giving consent. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents.

Results: In this study, 638 (98.2%) of respondents had good basic knowledge of childhood diarrhea in under-five children, 12 (1.8%) had fair basic knowledge, no group was rated as having poor basic knowledge. Occurrence of childhood diarrhea was marginally higher among respondents with good knowledge of diarrhea (50.3%) than respondents with fair basic knowledge, (50%). In practice during advent of childhood diarrhea, some caregivers chose to seek health-care from traditional healers 6.1% (19), churches 1.9% (6), pharmacies 16.9% (53), patent drug stores 18.8% (59), hospital, 14.3% (45), or self medication at home 42% (132).

Conclusion: Although most Caregivers possessed good basic knowledge of childhood diarrhea, there were constrains translating this knowledge into intervention practices due to inadequate presence. Of social amenity framework in the study area. Government and non Governmental authorities should make provision of social amenities such as hospitals, pipe borne water, waste disposal facilities, power supply, water drainagesetc, a priority.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive and Prognostic Value of C-reactive Protein/Albumin and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in the Patients Diagnosed with Acute Pancreatitis in Emergency Department

Utku Murat Kalafat, Serkan Dogan, Busra Bildik, Melis Dorter, Doganay Can, Basar Cander

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430196

Aims: Acute pancreatitis is a severe inflammation of the pancreas presenting sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality. Simple, accessible, cost-efficient and feasible laboratory tests are still needed to demonstrate the prognosis of the patients. The aim of the present study was to search the efficiency of CRP/Alb ratio as a biochemical marker on mortality and clinical progress in the patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis in correlation with APACHE-2.

Methodology: This prospective case-control study was conducted with the patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis through Atlanta criteria and healthy volunteers as a control group in the emergency department. Demographic characteristics, vital signs, ultrasound reports, clinical outcomes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), CRP, albumin and CRP/Alb ratio, APACHE-2 score within control and patient groups were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed to distinguish healthy volunteers from acute pancreatitis cases.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CRP/Albumin and NLR measurements according to the groups and we found that the measurements of the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The cut-off point for CRP/Albumin and NLR was found to be respectively 1.08, 4.04 and above. (Respectively; sen: 76.64%, 78.50%; spe: 97.20%, 97.20%; PPV: 96.47%, 96.55%; NPV: 80.62%, 81.89%; the accuracy: 86.92%, 87.85%). APACHE-2 scores ranged from 0 to 16, with a mean of 5.80±3.92. The probability of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in patients with high CRP/Albumin and NLR.

Conclusion: This study showed that CRP/Alb ratio and NLR were positively correlated with APACHE-2 scores that designed for prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

The First Seroprevalence Investigation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus among Sahel Goat in Yobe State, Nigeria

Babagana Alhaji Bukar, Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Lawal Said

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430197

Peste des petits ruminants is among the most common viral disease conditions of small ruminants, whose status has not yet been reported in Yobe State, Nigeria. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of this disease among Sahel goats in Yobe State, Nigeria, using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Out of 460 serum samples collected, 255/460 (55.4%) were positive for PPR antibodies. Seroprevalence rates of 56.1%, 55.4% and 54.6% were recorded in Bursari, Bade and Nangere Local Government Areas (LGAs) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) observed in the PPRV seroprevalence rates among the three LGAs. Sahel goats older than 18 months had a significantly higher (p<0.0001) Sero-prevalence of 65.2% compared to the 35.3% observed among younger ones (<18 months). The sex-wise distribution of the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) seroprevalence rate showed that female Sahel goats had 60.0% and the males had 44.6%. The detection of the PPRV among Sahel goats from all the LGAs sampled suggests that PPRV is endemic in the study area. It is therefore recommended that PPR vaccination be instituted in the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of the Admissions of Old-old Patients to the Emergency Department

Serkan Dogan, Busra Bildik, Melis Dorter, Utku Murat Kalafat, Doganay Can, Basar Cander

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430198

Aim: Through advances in technology and medicine, life expectancy is longer than before. The area covered by elderly people in the population pyramid has been changing over the years. Emergency departments are often used by elderly patients. It increases the density and fullness in already-crowded departments. In this study, we aimed to examine characteristics of the admissions of old-old people through the EDs and we wanted to discuss the precautions and regulations that might be taken in order to improve the quality of care and management.

Methodology: This study was carried out cross-sectionally and retrospectively in the one-year period between 01.01.2017-31.12.2017 in a department of emergency medicine. Patients' age, gender, the hours of admissions to the emergency department, the month of admissions, reasons for admissions, diagnoses, consultations, final status, the place of hospitalization, the name of the hospitalization department and the number of readmissions in a one-year period were recorded in the study form. The study data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows 22.0. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: 4331 of these patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 85.25 ± 3.90 and 60.5% of them were female. According to the months, the first three of the admission months were December, November and October (9.7%, 9.6%, 9.2% respectively). The most common admission was in the 08: 00-15: 59 time zone with 47%, followed by 41.8% with the 16: 00-23: 59 time zone.4331 patients included in the study admitted to the emergency department 12.988 times during the study period. 46.2% of the patients admitted to the department once, 53.8% of them admitted 2 times and more. The discharge rate of patients who were admitted only once was 84.2% and the rate was 88.4% for twice and more admissions.

Conclusion: The existence and increasing number of this population should not be forgotten in changes to be made in emergency departments and other parts of the health system. Efforts should be made to improve the quality of care and to train staff to manage these patients more quickly and safely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychosocial Determinants of Quality of Life and Mental Health Status of Caregivers of Children with Psychopathologies in Lagos Nigeria

Deborah Adeyemi Lawrence, Olutope E. Akinnawo, Bede C. Akpunne, Aderonke A. Akintola

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i430199

This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and psychosocial health status of caregivers of children living with diagnosed psychological disorder. A total of 309 caregivers of children with psychological disorders using a Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital in  Nigeria (mean age = 41.2 years) were purposively selected during clinic appointment days and responded to Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Multidimensional Scale of Social Support (MSPSS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life - Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that burden of care and social support were significant joint  predictors of the Quality Of Life of the participants (R2= .040, p = .003), age of caregiver, duration of marriage of caregiver, child age and duration of care failed to jointly significantly predict the quality of life of caregiver  (R2= .013, p = .424), but significantly predicted the psychological health of the caregivers (R2= .084, p = .000).Social support had strong beta contribution on QoL while age of caregiver had significant beta contribution on psychological health of the caregivers.