Open Access Review Article

An Overview of the Sociodemographic Considerations of COVID-19 Pandemic

Ugbomah Lucy Ohoreorovwori, Stanley Catherine Nonyelum, Stanley Princewill Chukwuemeka

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330192

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus strain. The virus is believed to spread mainly by respiratory droplets where the infected people breathe, cough or sneeze and expel little droplets of moisture that contain the virus.Older people and people with pre-existing medical conditions are mostly affected.

Method: Relevant literatures were reviewed from the internet, electronic and print media, World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control documentation.

Results: The coronavirus has brought difficult situations for citizens across the world. Refugees and irregular migrants who find themselves in difficult situations are more vulnerable to the effect of the virus and the social difficulties associated with it.

Conclusion: The spread of the virus can be slowed or suppressed through social distancing, natural immunity, and observance of optimal hygiene practice and near compulsory use of face masks, particularly while dealing with the public.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Associated Factors among New Born Babies in Ataye Primary Hospital, North Shoa, Ethiopia, 2018

Tenagnework Dilnessa, Ewnetu Belete, Mitiku Tefera

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330186

Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of health status of  an  infant  and  is  a  principal  factor  that  determines  the  infant‘s,  physical, survival  and  mental  growth. Though efforts made in reducing incidences of low birth weight worldwide, the problem of low birth weight remains global health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia.

Objective: To determine prevalence of Low Birth Weight and associated factor, among the neonates born in Ataye primary hospital from June 1, 2017 GC- May 30, 2018 G.C.

Methods: A facility based cross sectional study was carried out on birth weight distribution. Data was collected from delivery registration book of obstetrics department and Medical records of the mother by using structured data collection format. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Adjusted odd ratio with 95% CI was calculated to see strength of association and P<0.05 was taken as level of statistical significance.

Results: Total of 181 mothers Medical records and delivery registration book were reviewed. The magnitude of low birth weight among new born babies in Ataye primary Hospital was 6.1%. Lack of Ante natal care follow up (AOR = 1.6 (95% CI =1.776, 9.48)), Preterm birth (AOR = 0.79(95% +CI = 0.034-0.78)), female sex (AOR=1.1(0.004-0.297)) and Multiple gestation (AOR=1.65(95% CI 0.001-0.426)) were identified factors of low birth weight.

Conclusion: Prevalence of low birth weight was lower than that of countrywide figure. Lack of Antenatal care follow up, preterm birth, sex of the neonate and multiple gestations were significantly associated with low birth weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Literacy and Control of Glycaemia in Diabetes and Blood Pressure in Hypertension; A Study Based on Validated Sinhala Version of HLS-EU-Q16

Sarath Lekamwasam, Sanka Wijebandara, Vajira Lekamwasam

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330188

Aims: To validate Sinhala version of HLS-EU-Q16 and asses the relationship between level of health literacy and control of blood sugar among diabetics and blood pressure among hypertensives. 

Study Design: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of Sinhala translation of HLS-EU-Q16 (HLS-EU-Q16-Sinhala) adhering to the standard methods. Following forward and backward translations, the Sinhala version of the questionnaire was applied to a group of 252 patients with chronic non-communicable diseases. Test-retest agreement was examined using a random subgroup of 120 patients. We assessed the association between the level of health literacy and the degree of glycaemic control among diabetics (n=1205, males 453) and blood pressure control among hypertensives (n=755, males 402) selected from outpatient department.

Results: The HLS-EU-Q16-Sinhala total score ranged from 22 to 72 with mean(SD) of 52.1(7.7). The overall Cronbach alpha was 0.84 and the Corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.32 to 0.60. The Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest reliability was 0.65(95%CI; 0.55-0.71). Diabetics with “poor” glycaemic control had low HL (40.0) compared to those with “intermediate” (52.6) or “good” (52.1) control (P=.03), after adjusting for age, gender and education level. Similarly, hypertensives with “poor” blood pressure control had low HL (45.0) compared to “intermediate” (52.3) or “good” (53.5) control (P=.03), after adjusting for the same covariates.

Conclusions: This study indicates that the psychometric indices of the Sinhala version of the HLS-EU-Q16 are adequate for it to be used to assess HL among Sinhala speaking subjects. Further, it shows that patients with poor HL fail to achieve their primary treatment goals in diabetes and hypertension. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Unmet Need for Family Planning among HIV Positive Women in Care in Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, Nigeria

A. Mohammed, D. Chiroma, C. H. Laima, M. A. Danimoh, P. A. Odunze

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330191

Background: Elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) requires adequate and continuous use of family planning commodities among women of reproductive age. This can be made possible by reducing the proportion of HIV positive women with unmet need for family planning. The study aims to determine the factors associated with having unmet need among women in HIV care.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using an interviewer administered questionnaire to study 325 women on HIV care. Cluster sampling technique was used to select the study respondents from the clinic.

Results: Less than half of the respondents (40%) were currently using family planning, 35% had unmet need for family planning with 53.6% having unmet need for spacing while 46.4% having unmet need for limiting. Women with no history of previous use of family planning were fifteen times more likely to have unmet need for family planning than those with history of previous use of family planning (p value <0.001, CI 2.511-15.770). Also women with more than five deliveries were eight times more likely to have unmet need for family planning (p value 0.004, CI 0.001-0.279) while women with 2-5 deliveries are four times likely to have unmet need for family planning (p value 0.035, CI 0.005-0.832).

Conclusion: A high proportion of women receiving ART care still have unmet need for family planning despite incorporating this service in HIV care. It is therefore important to target high risk groups to reduce the proportion of women with unmet need for family planning which will invariable reduce mother to child transmission of HIV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pearl Millet on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Streptozocin Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat Model

Khalid Abbas Owish Sukar, Rihab Ibrahim Abdalla, Humeda Suekit Humeda, Ahmed Omer Alameen, Eltayeb Ibrahim Mubarak

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330193

Aims: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Pear millet on glycaemic control and lipid profile in streptozocin diabetic rat model.

Methodology: Forty healthy mature male rats were used in this study. The rats divided into 4 groups, ten rats in each and group (A) and (B) normal control rats while group (C) and (D) considered as diabetic rats. Diabetes induced by intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg streptozocin and confirmed by high blood glucose level which considered day 0. The experiment 1, included two groups (A and C), equal rats and the parameters investigated were measured in days 0, 14 and 28. The experiment 2 included two groups (B and D) were received 20% pearl millet and the blood samples were measured in days 0, 14 and 28.

Results: The obtained results revealed significant (P<0.05) reduction in insulin and adiponectin (P<0.001) and elevation of blood glucose (P<0.001) in diabetic rats in group C, while significant (P<0.05) reductions in blood glucose, LDL levels and significant (P<0.05) elevation in adiponectin and HDL levels were detected in rats in group B and D. 

Conclusions: The studies provide evidence that pearl millet induces hypoglycemic effect and improved lipidemic control in diabetic rats.

Open Access Short Research Article

Multigrain Beetroot Crisps: A Healthy Snacking Option

Nikita Singh, Rupali Sengupta

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i330189

Aim: With the rise of metabolic disorders like obesity in developed countries, maintenance of healthy lifestyle has become very challenging. Food plays a very important role in this process. Consumption of healthy foods with proper portion control can help in controlling excess weight gain and can prevent metabolic disorders like obesity. Obesity is characterized by excess accumulation of fat. This further leads to complications like dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Increased consumption of calorie dense fatty snacks or high sugar processed foods between meals is one of the causes of obesity. Consumption of low fat high fiber snacks has shown to help in weight reduction. Therefore development of a healthy snacking option was considered. The aim of the study was to develop and standardize a healthy snack for obese as well as healthy population.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Dr. BMN College of Home Science, between November 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: A healthy snacking option in the form of Multigrain Beetroot Crisps was prepared by using a mixture of cereals and millets flours. The snack was baked instead of frying to reduce the calorific and fat content. Standardization was done by testing for sensory evaluation using 5 point hedonic scale for four weeks. Shelf life study was carried out to find stability of developed product.

Results: Sensory evaluation studies showed the product was well accepted by the target population. On comparison with the commercially available product, Multigrain Beetroot Crisps was high in fiber, calcium and iron. Shelf life study showed, the product was stable for four weeks at room temperature when kept in an airtight container.

Conclusion: A healthy snacking option in the form of Multigrain Beetroot Crisps was developed for obese as well as healthy population which is nutritionally better as compared to commercially available beet chips owing to its fiber, calcium and iron content which are beneficial in obesity related complications.