Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Air Pollution on the Vital Capacity of Commercial Motorcyclists in Nigeria Population

G. U. Ezeja, C. U. Onwudiwe, O. D. Nwodo, G. Umahi-Ottah, N. D. Nwobodo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130174

Background: Ambient air pollution is a serious challenge to human health in most West African countries including Nigeria.

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of dust inhalation on the vital capacity of commercial motorcyclists in Abakaliki metropolis.

Methods: 200 subjects participated in this study, 100 commercial motorcyclists (test group) and 100 non-motorcyclists (control group). The mean ± S.D of their age, height and weight were calculated. Vital capacity was measured using a spirometer. A questionnaire and consent form was filled by every participant before the commencement of the study. A handheld laser dust measuring device called air sampler PCE-PCO 1 was used to analyze the quantity, quality and sizes of particulate matters present in the research area.

Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; Mean and standard deviations were calculated and the Z-test was used to test if the mean were significantly different. Level of significance was set at 95%.

Results: The age of participants were within the range of 25 – 30 years. Commercial motorcyclists were exposed to particulate matter 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 µm. The vital capacity of commercial motorcyclists was significantly lower than that of non-motorcyclists (p =0.01). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the vital capacity of commercial motorcyclists was observed when correlated with the number of years spent in the job (p = 0.03). There was also a significant correlation between vital capacity and hours spent per week among commercial motorcyclists (r = 0.245).

Conclusion: Commercial motorcyclists need to be encouraged to adopt respiratory health safety strategies like use of full-face helmets, practice of active cycle of breathing techniques and also, be educated on air pollution hazards by public health workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shapes and Sizes of Sella Turcica Using Computerized Tomography (CT) from Tertiary Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria

Z. Usman, A. D. Zagga, G. H. Yunusa, U. Abubakar, A. Bello, J. D. Usman, A. Abdulhameed, S. S. Bello, I. M. Ahmad, M. A. Musa, T. Ammani, G. B. Marwan, R. Bello, A. M. Ahmed, B. O. Onimisi, H. A. Bunza

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130175

Cephalometry deals with measurement of body parts or radiological specimen. Sella turcica is an important anatomical structure located in the middle cranial fossa, housing the pituitary gland. Various shapes and sizes of the sellae turcica were reported. In this study, using computerized tomographic (CT) scans from a tertiary hospital, one hundred and seventy five (175) scans were analyzed using Radiant version 4.2 (Medixant 2017) for determination of sizes and shapes of the sella. Average dimensions from the study include: Length (12.4 mm), A-P diameter (14.1 mm), depth (9.6 mm) and transverse diameter (13.8 mm). Shapes were classified as being round (56.6%), oval (32%) and flat (11.4%). In another classification of shape variation, the findings are: Normal (68.6%), anterior oblique (9.1%), pyramidal (6.9%), double contour floor (5.7%), notching on the posterior wall (5.1%) and sella bridge (4.6%). Males tend to have higher sella sizes than females and there is statistical significant difference between them especially in respect to A-P diameter and length parameters. However, there is no sex predilection to shapes.

Open Access Original Research Article

HIV Disclosure in Children in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria–Child’s Perspective

A. U. Eneh, R. O. Ugwu, N. I. Paul

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130176

Background: Disclosure of HIV status to children is essential for disease management. Studies on disclosure in children have largely described it from the health provider’s perspective or caregiver’s perspective. Caregivers’ and children’s reports about children’s feelings and distress can however differ. Understanding the disclosure process from the perspective of HIV-positive children will therefore better portray the impact it had on them.

Aim: The aim of the study was to explore from the child’s perspective the process of disclosure, the impact it had on them, how they have coped and suggestions on how they think it could be done better.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of HIV-infected children and adolescents aged 8–18 years who are aware of their status attending paediatric HIV clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria from April 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire administered by a Paediatric health care provider. Information sought included: Biodata (age, gender), educational levels of the child, family characteristics (primary caregiver, orphan status), age at disclosure, process of disclosure, the impact of the disclosure, how they have coped, what they did not like about the way they were told and suggested better ways of telling the children.

Results: Seventy-eight HIV-positive children and adolescents were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 8 – 18 yrs with a mean age of 14.74±2.23 years. Forty (51.3%) were males, 50 (64.1%) were in secondary schools, 43 (55.1%) were orphans and the mode of transmission was vertical in 70 (89.7%). In majority 33 (42.3%), the biologic mother was the primary caregiver. Majority of the children 34 (43.6%) had their status disclosed to them between 13 and 14 years. The mother alone did the disclosure in 30 (38.5%). Thirty-six (46.2%) were already aware of their status before disclosure. Disclosure was a one-off event without discussions in 48 (61.5%). The commonest immediate reactions was depression 48 (61.5%). The majority 48(61.5%) became more prayerful as a coping strategy. All 78 (100%) agreed that disclosure has positively impacted on their taking their ARV drugs and clinic attendance.

Concerning suggestions from the children, 36 (46.2%) said the most appropriate age for disclosure should be 12-13 years, 54 (69.2%) suggest that both parents should do the disclosure while 60 (76.9%) said that the children should be told how they got infected. Their major concern was having to take drugs for life 60 (76.9%).

Conclusion: Disclosure process is suboptimal. Understanding the disclosure process from the perspective of HIV-infected children, therefore, is critical to developing interventions to improve disclosure. Most of the parent’s fears of negative impact of status disclosure may be exaggerated. There is need for health care providers to develop a plan with the caregivers of HIV-infected children on the optimal disclosure process and how to anticipate and resolve questions the children may have following disclosure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile in School Children Infected with Urinary Schistosomiasis in Fante Akura-Yeji, Ghana

Ruth. C. Brenyah, Cephas Effah Boakye, Enos Amoako Oduro, Solomon Sosu Quarshie, Precious Kwablah Kwadzokpui, Albert Abaka-Yawson

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130177

Background: Schistosomiasis remains one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide causing considerable deaths especially among people in the Sub-Saharan region. This study determined the association between urinary Schistosomiasis and lipid profile among school children in Fante Akura, Yeji.

Materials and Methods: This simple randomized case-control study was conducted among 50 primary school students with Schistosoma haematobium infection and 50 healthy control students in Fante Akura, Yeji, from January, 2014 to March, 2014. Urine and blood samples were obtained and examined for the presence of S. haematobium and assessed their lipid profile respectively. A structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information from the study participants on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as on the risk factors that can predispose study participants to S. haematobium infection.

Results: The mean serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was reduced significantly in schistosome-infected participants in comparison to controls (P<0.001). The mean serum levels of triglyceride (TG) (p=0.028), LDL-C (p=0.011) were significantly higher in participants with light S. haematobium infection intensity compared to participants with heavy S. haematobium infection intensity (P=0.028). The mean serum level of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were higher (P>0.05) in participants with light SH infection intensity compared to participants with heavy SH infection intensity.

Conclusion: S. haematobium infection presented significant changes in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins in participants infected with S. haematobium with a corresponding raised urine parasite count.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Dietary Services in Secondary Level Hospitals

Ahmed Imtiaz, Muiz Uddin Ahmed Choudhury, Zannatul Ferdous, Hafiza Sultana, Md. Motiur Rahman, Md. Haroon Or Rashid

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130179

Hospital diet is an essential part of modern therapy in all medical departments. It comprises both the so-called normal diets which are prepared according to modern nutrition knowledge, dietetic foods and the various forms of artificial nutrition. The dietary department provides food and nutrition services that consistently promote adequate nutritional intake, improve health and enhance the quality of life. This study was cross-sectional from January 2016 to December 2016. The nonprobability purposive sampling method was used for data collection. Total 164 samples were collected purposively within the data collection period. There were 150 hospital patients and 14 dietary staff who collected the data secondary level hospitals by using semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using SPSS. Among 150 patients 92% of the patients ate hospital diet and only 8% of the patients did not eat hospital diet. Among them 6.7 % of the patients said that the hospital supply foods were unhygienic and 93.3% say the hospital food was healthily. There was 8% patients complains that the supply food was not neat and 13% of the patient says that they did not use the spoon. There were 64.3% of the dietary staff did not use non touch technique during food distribution. Majority of the patients 79.3% said they have no training about food hygiene. The satisfaction level of the dietary staff, there was 57.1% staff were satisfied and there was 21.4% dietary staff were very satisfied following 21.4% was dissatisfied. The satisfaction among the patient 75.8% patient was satisfied 9.8% of the patient were dissatisfied. Dietary department improved the food quality and supplied adequate quantity of food among the patients. Dietary department needs to clean regularly and training should be implemented among the nutrition personnel. The sufficient lighting facility may improve for the patient’s satisfaction.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Potential for Acupuncture to Attenuate Hippocampal Apoptosis

Hana Marsheck, Yunsuk Koh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 35-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i130178

Aims: To evaluate the potential for acupuncture to help mediate hippocampal apoptosis.

Study Design: Systematic Review.

Methodology: A search was conducted through PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using the keywords “hippocampus,” “apoptosis” and “acupuncture” and found 37 qualified articles from January 2009 to March 2019.

Results: All of the qualifying studies reviewed strongly support that acupuncture decreases the incidence of hippocampal apoptosis.

Conclusion: It was clear that acupuncture can positively affect hippocampal apoptosis. The most frequently suggested mechanism was decreased BAX expression and increased BCL-2 expression, often in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, although it was only seen in about 1/3 of the studies reviewed. Future studies are needed to further investigate the exact mechanism associated with acupuncture in hippocampal apoptosis.