Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Schistosomiasis in Africa: Evolutional Origin and Diagnostic Challenges

Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu, Shuaibu Umar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i230160

Schistosomiasis is an overlooked tropical illness that is caused by the blood fluke that dwells human blood vessels. It manifest as an acute yet chronic sickness and is normally found in all developing nations with poor health services frameworks. Strong phylogenies dependent on molecular data of species in the family of Schistosoma have been produced lately. The impressive advancement made in understanding the connections between considerable perceived types of Schistosoma is explored with specific consideration being given to the discovery and investigation of parasite variety as reported by studies on ribosomal RNA qualities, mitochondrial DNA and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Generally, molecular phylogenies concur with perceptions depending on morphological or life-history attributes. Basically the parasites of man don't form a monophyletic group and that cozy connections exist between parasites inside species groups, particularly in the S. haematobium group of species. The S. japonicum group has all the hallmarks of being the most dissimilar of the species groups but then little DNA succession variety has been seen between different isolates of S. japonicum. Diagnosis is a key to all aspects of schistosomiasis and decision on individual and community treatment, estimations on prognosis and appraisal of dismalness, assessment of chemotherapy and control estimates all require the outcomes from diagnostic tests. Unfortunately, the present techniques are characterized by analytical flaws.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Services at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul, Rosemary Ogochukwu Ugwu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i230159

Background: Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV causes over 90% of Paediatric HIV and its prevention must be targeted to curb this scourge.

Objective: To determine the associated risk factors and outcome (HIV status) of HIV-exposed babies at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).

Methodology: This was a prospective study carried out at the Paediatric HIV clinic of UPTH. Information on sociodemographic data of the babies, age at referral, when the mother’s HIV status was diagnosed, HAART use status of the mother, place of ANC and delivery, method of delivery, feeding option, duration of breast feeding and HIV status of the babies were obtained. Obtained data was analysed and a p- value of < 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence interval.

Result: A total of two hundred and sixty HIV exposed children were seen over the study period, with a male: female ratio of 1.4:1. The overall MTCT rate was 6.2%. Among the mothers that had the complete PMTCT intervention, an MTCT rate of 1.1% was observed, while it was 28.6% among mothers who had no form of PMTCT.  Identified statistically significant risk factors to MTCT include; lack of use of HAART (χ2 =116.2, p=0.0001); No infant ARV prophylaxis (p=0.0001); Mixed feeding (p=0.0001); Prolonged breast feeding (χ 2 = 7.09, P= 0.0287); TBA supervised pregnancy (χ2 =31.9, P= 0.0001) and delivery (χ2 =61.47, P= 0.0001).

Conclusion: PMTCT interventions in the control of MTCT of HIV is effective. To eliminate MTCT of HIV, promoting PMTCT services must be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Otorhinolaryngological Disorders in HIV Positive Paediatric Patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH)

C. M. Vincent, O. B. da Lilly-Tariah, L. O. Onotai, N. I. Paul

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i230161

Background: HIV is a worldwide disease and affects all systems of the body. Despite the high burden of Paediatric HIV in Nigeria, few studies have been done on Otolaryngological disorders in children living with HIV. This study aimed to determine the pattern and prevalence of Otorhinolaryngological disorders among HIV positive paediatric patients and to compare them with age and sex-matched control.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional case-control study carried out among 130 HIV positive and 130 HIV negative children aged 6 to 15 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Eligible patients were recruited via a systematic sampling method and matched with HIV negative controls and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to extract relevant information. All patients had Otorhinolaryngological examination and CD4 count determination, while children with tonsillar enlargement underwent X-ray of the post nasal space. HIV patients were graded for severity using WHO clinical Staging.

Results: A higher proportion of the HIV positive patients had allergic rhinitis (66.9% vs.30.8%, p=0.01), pharyngitis (40.8% vs.18.5%, p=0.01), tonsillitis (34.6% vs.20.8%, p=0.013), adenotonsilar disease (24.6% vs. 13.8%, p=0.028), cervical lymphadenopathy (15.4% vs. 5.4%, p=0.001) and otitis media (5.4% vs. 0.8%, p=0.031). There was a significantly higher prevalence of ORL disorders among HIV positive children (95.4%) compared to HIV negative children (78.5%). (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Pattern of ORL disorder appeared similar in both HIV-positive and -negative children. However, the overall high prevalence of the findings among the HIV-positive children required regular ORL assessment in these children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Otorhinolaryngological Disorders Implicated in Facial Nerve Paralysis in a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt

Ibekwe Matilda Uju, Anyama Ernest Ugonna

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i230162

Background: It is not all facial nerve palsy that presents to the otorhinolaryngologist that is Bell’s palsy; therefore there is a need for proper evaluation of these patients. This study is to determine the pattern and prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic disorders associated with facial nerve paralysis.

Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of otorhinological disorders implicated in facial nerve paralysis in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

Patients and Methods: Study design: This was a hospital-based descriptive study. The patients diagnosed with facial nerve paralysis seen in the Ear Nose and Throat surgery and Physiotherapy departments of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) from January 2014 to December 2018 were collated and those among them with associated otorhinolaryngological disorders were recruited and studied. Data on patient demographics, presenting complaints and ear nose and throat disorders were sought from the case files, clinic and ward registers. Data entry was done using Microsoft Excel and exported to United States CDC Epi-Info version 7 for data analysis. Frequency tables and appropriate charts were used to present data. Chi square statistics was performed to determine significant differences between demographics of the patients and category of facial nerve palsy patients at alpha level of 0.05.

Results: 76 patients with facial nerve paralysis, twenty one of them were associated with ORL disorder giving a prevalence of 27.6%. Ages below 40 years were the most affected and a slight male preponderance. Acute and chronic otitis media were seen in 33.3% of these patients respectively while Ramsay hunt syndrome and otitis externa were seen in 9.5%. Age and incidence of ORL disorders in these patients had statistical correlation.

Conclusion: ORL disorders associated with facial paralysis are still prevalent and otitis media appear to be the most common.

Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Body Fat Percentage by Body State Devices and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

Reham A. Mostafa, Doaa R. Negm, Naser A. ElSawy

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i230163

Background: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate technique in determining fat percentage but it is unpotable, expensive, unavailable for general applicability.

Objective: This study aimed to find the most accurate and easiest technique as alternative to DEXA for quick determination of body fat%. This study examined the accuracy of three models of Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technique (Fat Loss Monitor- Body Composition -Body Fat Analyzer) in determining the body fat percentage with using DEXA as a reference standard.

Subject and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out during the period from (28-9-2017) to (5-4-2018) among a random sample of (53) volunteers female student in Umm Al Qura University from Faculty of Applied Medical Science aged between (20-39 years) from different level of education. All subjects were generally healthy, data was collected through a structured questionnaire compose of three section. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurements were evaluated as well as body composition (Only body fat%) using DEXA, body composition monitor, fat loss monitor and body fat analyzer.

Results: BMI classification of the total 53 subjects was including 8 healthy females, 17 overfat, 25 obese and 3 underweight. The fat% result from DEXA and body fat analyzer was significant difference at (P < 0.05). Fat percent result from DEXA and Body Composition device was non-significant difference at (P>0.05). The fat% result from DEXA and Fat Loss Monitor device was significant at difference (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The most accurate of BIA technique was the Body Composition device compering to DEXA.