Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Hypertension in Fayoum Governorate

Eman M. Ezzat, Maher A. Al Amir, Abdelrahman A. Ewais

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130154

Background: Hypertension is a preventable cause of premature death worldwide. Data from the Egyptian National Hypertension Project (NHP) revealed that hypertension is a significant problem among Egyptians. We studied the prevalence of hypertension, related risk factors and its complications in Fayoum governorate.

Patients and Methods: This study included 2800 Egyptian participants aged 18 to 60 years old from Fayoum governorate selected randomly from different places in Fayoum governorate. Blood pressure was measured for them. Re-measurement for those with BP measurements ≥ 140/90 was done with a further assessment. Known hypertensive patients were thoroughly evaluated by clinical examination and laboratory investigations.

Results: Our survey revealed that the prevalence rate of hypertension in Fayoum governorate was 28.4% (19.3% were aware and 9.1% were first diagnosed and unaware of their hypertension), 11% of the study population were pre-hypertensives. Poorly controlled hypertensive patients were 59.9%. Of all hypertensive patients, 63.4% of them were females, 87.9% of them were overweight and obese, while 26.3% of them had diabetes mellitus. Also, 41% of known hypertensive patients had complications.

Conclusion and Recommendations: There is a high prevalence rate of hypertension in Fayoum governorate. More knowledge is required to reveal the reasons behind this high prevalence in addition to the low levels of control and awareness of hypertension, to put the appropriate strategy to improve the rate of control, awareness, and quality of life of hypertensive patients in Egypt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Personality Dimensions as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Selected Prison Inmates in Anambra State, Nigeria: A Demographical Perspective

Afamefuna O. Okeke, Chisom E. Ogbonnaya

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130155

The plights of prison inmates cannot be over emphasized and it has been one of much debate characterized with agitations by the civil liberties group and other human rights organizations owing to the increase in suicidal ideation rates globally, which have prompted unsuccessful attempt by the government and its institutions to correct this problem with little or no success until date. This study examined personality characteristics as predictors of suicidal ideation among a group of selected prison inmates in Anambra State. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in the study. Accidental sampling technique was used to select two hundred and ninety-six (296) inmates from The Nigerian Prisons Service, Headquarters Amawbia, Akwa, and the Nigerian Prison in Amawbia and Onitsha. The Big-Five Inventory (BFI) and the Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), were used to gather necessary information for the study with Cronbach’s Alpha of .91 and .89 respectively.Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using Hierarchical Regression Analysis. The results showed that demographic variables gender, (β = -.03.), age (β = .14) and education (β = -.07.) were not significant predictors of suicidal ideation. The Big Five personality dimensions indicated that only openness inversely predicted of suicidal ideation (β = -.13). However, extraversion (β = .09.), neuroticism (β = .04.), conscientiousness (β = -.05.), and agreeableness (β = -.03.) did not predict suicidal ideation. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that Nigerian Prison Service should engage inmates into therapeutic programmes and clinical interventions that increase self-awareness and psycho-emotional development of personality to reduce ideation towards suicide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Pathogens amongst Parturients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, South-South, Nigeria

Inye Faye Korubo, Justina Omoikhefe Alegbeleye, Chris Iheanachor Akani

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130156

Aim: To identify the microorganisms in urine before and after delivery. Also, to identify the incidence, risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in postpartum bacteriuria.     

Methods: A quasi-interventional study of 50 women who had term vaginal deliveries at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Nigeria, between September 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. Clean catch midstream urine samples collected in sterile containers from parturients before and after delivery were processed. All significant isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Socio-demographic data and data regarding labour and risk factors were collected on a pre-designed proforma and entered on a spread sheet. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0.

Results: Majority 49 (98%) of the parturients were booked (women that received antenatal care). Eight (16%) of the parturients had bacteriuria pre and post-delivery. Four of the parturients who were negative for bacteriuria before delivery had postpartum bacteria, giving an incidence of 8% for postpartum bacteriuria. The commonest micro-organism isolated post-delivery was Escherichia coli (50%). The number of vaginal examinations, vacuum delivery, episiotomy, perineal tear and bladder catheterization did not significantly increase the risk of postpartum bacteriuria.

Conclusion: Escherichia coli is the most common urinary pathogens and sensitive to Nalidixic acid. Routine screening of women for bacteriuria after delivery and an understanding of the antimicrobial sensitivity will help in reducing associated morbidities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Family Structure and Literacy Level as Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress among Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria

Afamefuna O. Okeke, Chisom E. Ogbonnaya

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130157

Victims of human trafficking suffer a plethora of psychological problems and it has been one of much deliberation by governments and other human rights organizations. Thepresent study examined the family structure and literacy levels as predictors of Post-Traumatic stress among a group of selected victims of human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in the study. Accidental sampling technique was performed to select seventy-eight (78) victims of human trafficking who were in different zones of the National Agency for Trafficked Persons (NAPTIP). Post-traumatic Stress Scale, developed by Keane et al (1984) was used to gather necessary information for the study with Cronbach’s Alpha of .92. Three hypotheses were formulated as well as tested by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and independent t-test analysis. The results showed that literacy level, [r (78) = .24; p > 0.05] and family structure [r (78) = .31; p > 0.01] were significantly correlates with Post-Traumatic Stress. Based on the findings, it is recommended that National Agency for Trafficked Persons should engage victims into therapeutic and educational programmes and using clinical interventions to help boost self-esteem, self-awareness and psycho-emotional development of these victims to reduce trauma-related problems associated with activities of human trafficking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pulmonary Hypertension in Adults with Sickle Cell Anaemia: A Prevalence Study in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

A. N. Mbakamma, C. A. Alikor

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130158

Introduction: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a lifelong multisystem disease endemic in sub Saharan Africa. As the population of patients living with SCA into adulthood continues to increase, pulmonary hypertension has emerged as one of the foremost complications with severe implications on the quality of life and a risk factor for premature mortality.

Aims: The present investigation is a prevalence study in the Niger Delta region regarding pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell anaemia.

Methods: One hundred and six adults were recruite; fifty-three sickle cell anaemia patients recruited from the outpatient clinic of the haematology department of the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, Port Harcourt and 53 genotype AA adults recruited as control. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all 106 subjects. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was assessed based on tricuspid regurgitation jet of velocity ≥2.5 m/s (estimated SPAP≥30 mmHg). 

Results: The mean age of the SCA patients was 25.94±6.47 years, (range 18-45 years) while the age group with the highest representation was those within 18–27 years. The proportion of males (52.8%) was slightly higher than that of the females. Pulmonary hypertension was observed in 5.7% while high normal pulmonary artery pressure was observed in 1.9% of the SCA patients studied.

Conclusion: The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults living with Sickle Cell Anaemia in this study is 5.7% and it is significantly influenced by the age of the study cohort and the method used in assessing this parameter.