Open Access Review Article

Bloodless Medicine and Surgery: A Review of Practice and Consideration of Jehova Witnesses

Naomi Amadiuwa Ernest, Dorathy Chioma Okpokam

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i330143

Blood transfusion plays important role in medical and surgical practice and has been employed in varying medical and surgical procedures. An increasing amount of literature concerning blood conservation, restrictive transfusion strategies, pharmacological manipulation of the haemostatic and fibrinolytic systems, minimal invasive surgery, local haemostatic agents and guidelines for blood transfusion, is being published each year. This review aims to summaries the key concepts of bloodless medicine and surgery, offer a practical guide on how to approach such cases and outline currently available approaches to manage anemia or bleeding in patients. The standard practice is to keep vigilance to the possibility of reactionary or secondary haemorrhage. Continued bleeding is aggressively managed by postoperative blood salvage, or surgical intervention to stop haemorrhage. A multidisciplinary effort therefore has to be made through the entire chain, from the outpatient clinic through discharge from the hospital, with the utmost exertion of all team members in which surgeons play a key role and the medical laboratory scientist in the adaptation of bloodless surgery program.

Open Access Review Article

The Influence of Blood Groups on Diseases Pattern Globally: A Review of Literature

James Inyang Asuquo, Dorathy Chioma Okpokam, Idongesit K. Isong

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i330145

The present survey reports the influence of blood groups on disease pattern in worldwide basis. Genetic factors have been associated with vulnerability or resistance to certain disease. For example, individuals who are heterozygous to haemoglobin S and haemoglobin E are resistant to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The manifestation of metabolic syndrome, a sickness characterized by multiple risk factors like obesity, hypertension and glucose intolerance is also influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have established a relationship between ABO blood type and incidences of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This review brought to the fore the relationship between blood groups and susceptibility or resistance to disease. There is need for more studies to be carried out to unravel the exact mechanism how blood groups affect disease. It is recommended that individuals of various blood groups should know the different disease that they are prone to and avoid the predisposing factors to such diseases.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Gastrointestinal Pathologies Recorded at the Felix Houphouet-boigny University Community Health Center from 2013 to 2017 (Abidjan - Ivory Coast)

N’gbesso Jean-Paul N’gbesso, Kanga Demedeiros, Allou Aimé Constantin Ahoua, Arra A. Juli Landry, Doumbia Mariamou Cisse, Serge Mambey, Okoubo Née Nicaise A. N’guessan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i330142

Background: Gastrointestinal pathologies constitute a significant public health problem for the Ivory Coast, particularly for populations living under conditions of poor hygiene.

Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal pathologies within the student body attending the Felix Houphouet-Boigny University Community Health Center.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the university center of the university Felix Houphouet-Boigny de Cocody to the south of the Ivory Coast between January to February 2018.

Methodology: It consisted of a documentary investigation which was carried out by consulting the medical files of the patients.

Results: The results revealed that gastrointestinal pathologies constituted the third principal cause of affection in the students with 16% of the consultations. This study permitted to evaluate the level of prevalence of gastrointestinal pathologies of 2013 to 2017.

Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that gastrointestinal pathology was a health problem for this student population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Trauma Scores, Clinical Outcomes and Hospital Costs of Patients Presenting with Traffic Accidents

Dilek Atik, Ramazan Unal, Burce Serra Kockan, Bensu Bulut, Hilmi Kaya, Ramazan Guven, Basar Cander

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i330144

Background: Traffic accidents have been a bleeding wound due to developing technology and increasing number of vehicles. Improvement in socio-economic level has led to an increase in number of vehicles and traffic accidents with injury and death increase accordingly. High costs appear by tests and treatments as well as further health problems and loss of labour power in traffic accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trauma scores, clinical outcomes and hospital cost of patients presenting to the emergency department with road traffic accidents.

Methods: Patients information; hospital automation system, forensic records and patient files were recorded. Cost information was received in hospital automation system. Hospital costs include examinations and treatments that have been performed since the first visit of the patients. According to the data obtained from the patients files, GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), AIS(Abbreviated Injury Scale) and ISS(Injury Severity Score) scores of each patient were calculated separately. All variables were tested for conformity to normal distribution, Kolmogorov Smirnov test and compliance with parametric test criteria. The data obtained by the study carried out within the scope of clinical research are statistically nonparametric. For this reason, Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used for statistical evaluation of associated variables according to dependency status. Spearman rank correlation in non-parametric data and Pearson correlation in parametric data were used as correlation methods. The results were evaluated for a significance level of         P < .05.

Results: The average cost of traffic accidents was found to be 247.38 Turkish Lira.The average cost of motor vehicle accidents was 246.53 Turkish Lira.The average cost of extra vehicular traffic accident was 235.3 Turkish Lira. Cost average was 265.9 Turkish Lira.The effect of clinical outcomes on the cost was found statistically significant. There was a statistically significant effect of GCS, AIS, ISS trauma scores on the cost. AIS and ISS and the cost was moderately significant and a positive correlation was found.

Conclusion: Frequency of the traffic accidents, higher hospitalization rates and higher medical expenses have made the traffic accidents a significant public health problem economically We believe that community education should be increased in order to reduce traffic accidents in terms of health as well as the national economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Elements, Antioxidants, Uric Acid, C-Reactive Proteins and Estrogen Levels of Preeclamptic Pregnant Women in Owerri, Nigeria

C. N. Nwadike, A. A. Eze, C. I. Nosiri, A. S. Ezekwe, M. T. Anyagwa, O. C. Aloy-Amadi, C. Onyeabo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i330146

Aims: The present study investigated levels of trace elements, antioxidants, uric acid, C-reactive proteins and estrogen in preeclamptic pregnant women in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria using patients from Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and specialists Hospital in Owerri, Nigeria.

Study Design: A total of 350 pregnant women between the ages of 20-40 years from two known hospitals in Owerri were examined for the study. The examined pregnant women were group into 160 normotensive pregnant women as control and 190 preeclamptic pregnant women.

Results and Discussion: Results obtained for serum trace elements revealed significant decrease (p<0.05) in preeclamptic pregnant women against normotensive pregnant women. Antioxidant vitamins C and E; and estrogen significantly decreased (p<0.05) in preeclamptic pregnant women against normotensive pregnant women. Uric acid and C-reactive protein levels increased in preeclamptic pregnant women against normotensive pregnant women. The decrease in trace elements could be linked to development of preeclampsia since some of these trace elements perform antioxidant function. Increased antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation could be behind the reduced levels of vitamins C and E, and estrogen in preeclamptic pregnant women against normotensive pregnant women.

Conclusion: This study has revealed the trace elements, antioxidants, uric acid, C-reactive proteins, and estrogen levels of preeclamptic pregnant women in Owerri, Nigeria.