Open Access Original Research Article

Tonsillectomy in Adults: Analysis of Indications and Outcome in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

D. Aliyu, J. H. Solomon

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i230137

Background: Tonsillectomy is a well-established surgical procedure practiced commonly by otolaryngologist for removal of tonsils. Although being a relatively simple and common procedure, it is not without considerable complications. This study aimed to profile the indication and outcome of adult tonsillectomy in our region.

Method: This was a retrospective study of all adults who had tonsillectomy in the department of Otorhinolaryngology, Usman Danfodiyo Teaching Hospital, (UDUTH) Sokoto, over a seven-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2017. All information was carefully retrieved from each patient’s case file and from the operation register. The data retrieved was subsequently analysed.

Results: A total of 55 adults patients had tonsillectomy over the period of study. Age range was 18 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.3 years. There were 16 males (29.1%) and 39 females (70.9%) with a male to female ratio of 1:2.4.  Recurrent tonsillitis 28(50.9%) was the commonest indication; others include: post quinsy 13(23.6%), tonsillomegally 6(10.9%); suspected neoplasm 6(10.9%); recurrent otalgia secondary to tonsillomegally 2(3.6%) Five patients had unilateral tonsillectomy for suspected neoplasm while others had bilateral tonsillectomy. Cold dissection was used in 37 (67.2%) of the patients, while 18(32.7%)were by electro cautery (Bipolar diathermy).

The commonest post-operative complication was pain in all patients, followed by otalgia (29.1%) and secondary post tonsillectomy bleed in two patients. No patient had blood transfusion. Hospital average stay was 3 days.

Follow up was uneventful in 16 (29.1%) of patients while 4(7.3%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma and were refered to Oncologist. The remaining 35 patients were lost to follow up.

Conclusion: The commonest indication for Adult tonsillectomy is chronic recurrent tonsillitis. Histopathological analysis of every tonsil specimen is advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Family Functioning of People Living with HIV/AIDS Accessing Care at a Nigerian Tertiary Health Centre

Stephen Adesope Adesina, Isaac Olusayo Amole, Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Olufemi Timothy Awotunde, David Akintayo Olaolorun, Adenike Adeniran, Louis O. Odeigah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i230138

Aims: To assess the family functioning and identify its determinants among adult PLWHA at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso.

Study Design: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the Antiretroviral (ARV) Clinic of the Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria from January 2014 to March 2014.

Methodology: Sixty-one HIV-infected patients aged 18 years and older were selected using the systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a pre-tested, structured, researcher-administered questionnaire which had a section on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics and incorporated the General Functioning scale of the Family Assessment Device to assess their family functioning. The data were analysed using SPSS and presented as descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The mean age of the 61 respondents was 37.1±8.1 years and 43 (70.5%) of them were females. Most of the respondents were married (65.6%) and the proportion of those with primary education (37.7%) was highest. A mean General Functioning (GF) score of 1.8±0.6  indicated an overall healthy family functioning. The proportion of respondents with healthy family functioning was highest for the married among all marital categories and decreased with increasing level of education. These associations of marital status and level of education with family functioning were statistically significant (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) based on the result of Fisher’s exact test.

Conclusion: The fact that larger proportions of the respondents were married and had low education level was found to have influenced the finding of a high rate of healthy family functioning in this study. Therefore, regular family functioning assessment as part of routine evaluation of PLWHA is suggested, and interventions that can temper the dysfunctional influences of formal education on family functioning should be incorporated into HIV/AIDS care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception, Awareness and Treatment Experiences about Onchocerciasis in a Rural Community in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Control

Regina Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Emmanuel Ugobo, Nuria Nwachuku, Ukam Edadi, Elvis Okolie, Divine-Favour Ofili, Glory Nja

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i230139

Background: Onchocerciasis a disease of poverty continues to place huge health, economic and social burden on communities at risk. Understanding critical factors that impact on access to treatment, acceptance and overall control measures are pivotal to the march towards its elimination.

Objective: To assess Onchocerciasis perception and treatment experiences in a rural community in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study using mixed method was undertaken. Data were collected using pretested questionnaire and in-depth interview guide. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS while the in-depth interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis done. Findings were presented in frequencies, charts, percentages, tables and quotes. Tests of significance were determined using Chi-square (Y2) at significance level of 5%.

Results:  Ignorance, myths and negative perception about the cause of Onchocerciasisas pervade in 64 (31.2%) of the respondents that did not know that the bite of infected Blackfly is the cause. Some attributed the disease to curse from the gods (45.3%) and witchcraft (23.4%). This poor knowledge is associated with lower highest attained level of education (p =0.01).  Non-availability of drugs (23.9%) and lack of knowledge on where to access ivermectin (9.8%) were the major challenges to ivermectin uptake. Inequity in treatment access was identified from the thematic analysis.

Conclusion: Poor knowledge of the cause of the disease, non-availability of ivermectin and misconceptions about cause of onchocerciasis had negative influence on health- seeking behaviors, discriminatory practices and treatment coverage. By integrating contextual knowledge awareness creation about Onchocerciasis into the design of control strategies will facilitate the vantage march towards achieving elimination target.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Medical Students Studying in Modular, Semester and Annual Examination System

Akhtar Ali, Shehla Shaheen, Farah Ahmed, Nisha Zahid, Noor Israr, Dabeeran Zehra

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i230140

Background: When there are high demands besides less resources, a person experiences a feeling of fear that is known as “Stress”. Students of professional schools/colleges and universities are encounter more stress than the general population as they are in a transitory phase from adolescence to adulthood. It has been highlighted that medical education has greater association with stress. There are three examination systems that are been followed by medical colleges of Pakistan (modular, semester and annual systems). However, to the best of our knowledge, no data is available to show the association of stress with current examination systems in our country.

Aims: The objectives of our study were to find out the association of stress with different examination systems and to identify the frequency of stress causing and coping factors adopted by 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students studying in colleges having different examination systems i.e. modular, semester and annual.

Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study.

Place & Duration of Study: This study was conducted from December 2018 to April 2019 in three medical colleges of Sindh having above mentioned examination systems.

Study Population: Medical students of 1st 2nd and 3rd year.

Methodology: To assess depression, anxiety and stress among study population, DASS Scale was used. To identify the stress causing and coping factors in the students Likert scale based proforma with 19 factors were given to the selected participants

Results: There was no significant association of examination system with depression, anxiety and stress, however various stress causing and coping factors were found significant in altering medical student`s life.

Conclusion: According to our study, the frequency of stress in the medial students has no association with the examination systems (modular, semester and annual), currently followed by the medical colleges in Sindh, Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in First Professional Medical Students

Zulfiqar Khosa, Mukhtar Mehboob, Muhammad Zubair, Hamaiyal Sana

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v16i230141

Objective: To assess the knowledge of first professional medical students of Bolan University of Medical and Health Sciences Quetta about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methodology: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on first professional MBBS students of Bolan Medical College Quetta from 1st May 2017 to 30 June 2017 (two months).The sample size was 200 students. . The questionnaire included 12 questions about diabetes mellitus, related to general knowledge of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The students were divided into two groups. The group I was the students who think that they have knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the group II was the students who think that they have poor or deficient knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Each question was allocated 5 marks. After giving marks to all replied questions, the  total 60 marks for 12 questions were further categorized as; A score of  less than 20 poor, 21—30 average, 31—40 good, ˃ 40 excellent.  The results were analyzed by SPSS.

Results: There were 174 (87.0%) students who had some knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus, while 26 (13.0%) had no any knowledge of diabetes mellitus. The students having age of 20 years or more were 126 (63%) where majority 107 (53.5%) were studying in second year. There were 102 (51%) male and 98 (49%) female students. The knowledge of investigation and diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus were found significant amongst all. The knowledge of etiology, symptoms, course, treatment and complications were found insignificant. Only 10 (5%) students had excellent knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: The students having an age of more than 20 years had excellent and more knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The problems of diabetes mellitus among their relatives and friends, its causative factors, symptoms and course was found insignificant. The knowledge of diagnostic test and interpretation had a positive correlation but insignificant. Majority of students 96 (48%) had average knowledge of diabetes mellitus.