Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus among HIV Infected Women Seeking Antiretroviral Therapy at National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria

Y. Ya’aba, S. B. Mohammed, K. T. Olatunji, A. R. Abdulmumin, A. Abubakar, M. Usoroh, O. C. Daniel, J. F. Nfongeh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430127

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic and well documented in different locations of Nigeria among different sub-groups. Information regarding the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected women is scarce especially in Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria.

Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among HIV infected women seeking for antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A health facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out in our laboratory from May, 2017 to March, 2019 among 1,386 recruited HIV infected women that were screened for HBsAg. Positive samples were confirmed using ELISA. Their socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained prior to study. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution table and SPSS (version 20.0).

Results: Out of the 1,386 HIV infected women tested, 114 were seropositive for HBV infection giving an infection prevalence of 8.2%. The highest prevalence (2.2%) was observed at age group 25 – 29 years and followed by (1.7%) at age groups of 20 – 24 and 35 – 39 years.

Conclusion: This finding confirms high endemic of HBV infection. We recommend that HIV infected women should be routinely screened for HBV as part of ART commencement requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Basic School Children in the Akyemansa District, Ghana

Albert Abaka-Yawson, Christian Hotorvi, Enos Amoako Oduro, Philip Apraku Tawiah, Solomon Sosu Quarshie, Albert Awuku Kumi, Kingsley Arhin-Wiredu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430128

Background: Globally, urinary schistosomiasis has devastating implications on school children. It predisposes them to dysuria, haematuria among others which can negatively influence their academic performance. This study determined the prevalence and associated risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis among basic school children in the Akyemansa district. 

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design using multi-stage sampling was used to enroll 504 basic school children from six communities of the Akyemansa District into study. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors. Urine samples were collected and microscopically examined for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium (SH) ova. The observed ova were then quantified as light or heavy.

Results: Prevalence of SH infection among school children in Akyemansa District was 10.32% [95% CI: 7.80 -13.31%]. Out of 52 participants who were infected, 69.2% had light infection whilst the rest had heavy infection. Female participants were less likely to be infected with SH than males [OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97], children who do not stay by the river/stream were also less likely to be infected with SH compared to those who lived near waterbodies [OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.17-0.72]. Additionally, participants who did not play around water bodies were also less likely to be infected with SH compared to those who did [OR=0.17; 95% CI= 0.04-0.71; p=0.015]. However, inhabitants of Kotokuom were more likely to be infected compared to those in Pawuda [OR=8.54; 95% CI: 1.91-38.27; p=0.005]

Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among basic school children in the Akyemansa district was found to be 10.32% [95% CI: 7.80 -13.31%]. Gender, staying around river/ stream, playing at river/ stream and habitation of participants were significantly associated with the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection. The study therefore recommends that periodic drug administration and a comprehensive intervention strategy should be designed and implemented to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Final Year Medical Students and House Officers to Otorhinolaryngology Surgery Training

Ibekwe Matilda Uju

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430129

Background: A good proportion of medical students and house officers will consider specialization in different aspects of medicine following graduation. However, there are still individuals who at this stage are undecided both in the question of specialization as well as on what area to pursue a career in. In a developing and resource poor country such as our environment where the doctor-patient ratio is very poor, proper distribution of physicians to meet the health demands of the people becomes of utmost importance.

Study Design: A descriptive questionnaire based study.

Place and Duration: Department of otorhinolaryngology surgery university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2019 and March 2019.

Methodology: We distributed semi structured self- administered questionnaire to all the final year medical students and the house officers of university of port Harcourt and university of port Harcourt teaching hospital. Only the house officers that did rotation in the ORL surgery department and final year medical students that gave their consent were recruited into the study. Those that did not do a rotation in ORL among the house officers and those that did not give consent were excluded. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and results presented in simple statistical tables.

Results: In this study there was a recovery rate of 82.4% with 70 respondents, 45 males and 25 females with a ratio of 1.8:1. Age range was 20 to 39 years. The age range 25-29 (58.57%) was the highest and least in age 35-39(4.29%). The final year medical students constituted 57.14% of the study population, 60% (n=42) did not want to specialize; only about 31.43% will like to specialize. while57.14% rated their clinic exposure as excellent, most rated the trainer`s method mainly average.   Most; 74.3% will not choose ORL, 14.3% were undecided and only 11.4% will like to specialize in ORL.  Main reason for this choice is exposure during clinical rotation and mentorship.

Conclusion: The interest in ORL among medical trainees is poor. Among those interested, exposure during clinical rotation is paramount. Dedication and innovative ideas on the part of teachers and mentors may arouse the interest in this specialty.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Resistance in Escherichia coli from Poultry Droppings in Keffi, Nigeria

S. C. Tama, Y. B. Ngwai, I. H. Nkene, R. H. Abimiku

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430131

Objectives: The present study reports extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in E. coli isolates from poultry droppings from selected poultry farms in Keffi, Nigeria.

Methods: Seventy-five (75) samples of poultry droppings were collected, and E. coli was isolated using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production by the isolates was carried out using double disc synergy test.  Molecular detection of ESBL genes was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method.

Results: All (100%) samples had E. coli. Antimicrobial resistance in the isolates were as follows: imipenem (12.0%), gentamicin (20.0%), cefoxitin (37.3%), cefotaxime (41.3%), ceftazidime (44.0%), ciprofloxacin (48.0%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.7%), streptomycin (92.0%),  sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (92.0%) and ampicillin (98.7%). Joint resistance to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim-streptomycin was the commonest resistance phenotype at 10.6%. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was observed in 97.3% (73/75) of the isolates; and the most common MAR indices were 0.7 (21.9%), 0.5 (17.8%), 0.4 (16.4%), 0.8 (11.1%) and 0.3 (10.9%). Twenty three (46.9%) of the 49 cefotaxime/ceftazidime isolates were confirmed ESBL producers. Twenty-two of the 23 ESBL positive isolates (95.7%) carried the bla genes as follows: 95.5% (21/22) for blaSHV; 68.2% (15/22) for blaTEM; and 50.0% (11/22) for blaCTX-M. Eleven (50%) of the 22 isolates carried two bla genes (blaSHV and blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaCTX-M and blaTEM and blaSHV).

Conclusion: The E. coli isolates were less resistant to imipenem, gentamicin and cefoxitin; most isolates were MAR, with resistance to 7 antibiotics being the most predominant. In addition, the blaSHV gene was the most common ESBL gene detected in confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli isolates.

Open Access Case Report

Management of Lagophthalmos in a Patient with Hansen Disease

Isaac Olusayo Amole, Stephen Adesope Adesina, Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Samuel Uwale Eyesan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430130

Aim: To highlight the surgical management of Lagophthalmos in a patient with Hansen disease.

Case Presentation: We present a case of a 58-year old man who had bilateral lagophthamos. He had pre-operative physiotherapy for two weeks, Temporalis muscle transfer for the left eye and post-operative physiotherapy for three weeks. His post-operative period was uneventful and the outcome of the surgery was satisfactory.

Discussion: Lagophthalmos is a fairly common and extremely distressing condition. It is often found in association with corneal anesthesia, which is responsible for the development of the corneal trauma syndrome from keratitis and ulceration leading to blindness. Out of all the surgical methods used in treatment of Lagophthalmos, Temporalis muscle transfer according to the method of Gillies is considered the best procedure.

Conclusion: Surgical correction of Lagophthalmos usually leads to restoration of voluntary blinking and closure of the eye during sleep which effectively protect the eye against further damage. Our patient was able to close his eye during sleep after the surgical correction.