Open Access Original Research Article

Quinsy in Adult: Clinical Profile and Management Challenges in Two Tertiary Hospitals Northwest Nigeria

D. Aliyu, S. S. Yikawe

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i330120

Purpose of the Study: Quinsy also known as Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a life threatened complication of acute exudative tonsillitis requiring immediate surgical intervention. We profile the clinical presentation and highlight challenges in management.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with Quinsy at the departments of otorhinolaryngology of two-government referral hospital in northwest Nigeria from May 2014 to April 2017. These patients’ clinical records were retrieved from the health record department and data extracted were analyzed using Microsoft excel program.

Results: A total of 147 adult patients had tonsillitis within the study period. Only eighteen patients with quinsy 13(72.2%) females and 5(27.8%) males with an M: F=1:2.6 were analyzed. Age range is between 18 years – 58 years with a mean age of 35.4 years. The highest incidence was 66.7% in patients within the age group 21-40 years. Odynophagia and trismus were the commonest presenting features in all the patients. Side of Quinsy involvement was on the left tonsils 12(66.7%). There was spontaneous rupture in 5(27.8%) while 13(72.2%) of patients had incision and drainage. All patients had broad-spectrum antibiotics. Interval tonsillectomy was carried out on 12(66.7%) of patients while 6(33.3%) of patients did not consent for tonsillectomy and were subsequently lost to follow up. No recurrence of symptoms or mortality recorded.

Conclusion: Quinsy is a life threatening otorhinolaryngological emergency common amongst young female adults. Optimal management is still antibiotics therapy and drainage of abscess in our center.

Open Access Original Research Article

Common Findings in Ultrasound Examination of the Liver and Kidney in Sokoto Metropolis

U. Abubakar, S. M. Marafa, V. K. ` Nwodo, A. A. Sadiq, G. M. Akpaniwo, A. Mohammed, D. Mohammed, I. I. Yusuf, A. D. Gurama

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i330121

Objectives: To evaluate and document common findings in ultrasound examination of the liver and kidneys in Sokoto metropolis and to reveal gender and age distribution of the findings in these organs.

Materials and Methods: The data was collected retrospectively from the hospital archives and records using a data capture sheet.

Results: Total sample of 322 ultrasound reports of the liver and kidneys in which some patients had two findings, one in the liver and another in the kidney, some had liver findings only, some kidney findings only, while some had normal ultrasound examination. Liver findings recorded a dominant male gender with a frequency of 75 (70.1%). Findings in the liver reported were liver cirrhosis, hepatomegaly, fatty liver, primary liver cell carcinoma, hepatic metastasis, chronic liver disease (CLD), hepatitis, hepatoma and liver cyst. Liver cirrhosis had the highest frequency with 29 (27.1%), hepatomegaly with a frequency of 17 (15.9%) followed by fatty liver and plcc with a frequency of 13 (12.1%) each. The age range of 40-49 years had the highest frequency for the liver findings with 23 (21.5%), followed by 60-69 years with 18 (16.8%) while 10-19 years had the least frequency with 3 (2.8%). For the kidney findings, male gender also dominated the findings with a frequency of 107 (64.1%). The age range that had the highest frequency was 20-29 years with 43 (25.7%), followed by 30-39 years with a frequency of 27 (16.2%). The age range with the least frequency was 80-89 years with 6 (3.6%). The pathological kidney findings reported were pyelonephritis, renal parenchyma disease (grades I, II, III, and IV), hydronephrosis, renal calculi, renal cyst, ectopic kidney, renal mass, renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. Pyelonephritis was recorded as the commonest finding with a frequency of 67 (40.1%), followed by renal parenchymal disease with 35 (21.0%).

Conclusion: The study revealed that male gender is at higher risk of having both liver and kidney diseases in Sokoto metropolis than the female and the age of those at higher risk ranged from 20-49 years.

Liver cirrhosis and pyelonephritis are the commonest diseases of the liver and kidneys respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Effect of Tobacco Snuff Consumption on Plasma Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin and Fasting Blood Sugar Level in Rats

C. I. Ugbor, L. O. Okonkwo, N. L. Okonkwo, N. J. Duhu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i330123

This study was designed to investigate the effect of tobacco snuff consumption on total protein, albumin, globulin and fasting blood sugar level. Adult Wistar rats (12) weighing 150-300g were involved. They were divided into four groups; group A serving as control, while groups B, C and D served as the test groups. The rats were fed with varying doses of tobacco dust mixed with potash (tobacco snuff). At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected into lithium heparin container. Total protein (24.34 ± 4.10 g/dl), albumin (13.80 ± 4.66 g/dl), and fasting blood sugar were assayed and the results obtained showed statistically significant changes. However, fasting blood sugar (117.33 ± 38.50mg/dl) showed decrease that was not statistically significant in all the groups throughout the experiment. The results of this study suggest that tobacco snuff is toxic to the synthetic capacity of the liver and the observed changes were dose dependent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Long-acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods and Factors Affecting their Use among Married Women in Akasta Town, North-East Ethiopia

Kibir Temesgen, Amare Workie, Yared Mulu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i330124

Background: Long acting contraception is a human right and is essential to women’s empowerment. It is essential to reduce poverty, promote economic growth, raise female productivity, lower fertility and improve child survival and maternal health. Even though some long acting reversible contraceptive methods are the world’s most prevalent form of reversible contraception, the utilization is very low in sub-Saharan Africa.

Study Aim: To assess the prevalence and factors affecting use of long acting contraceptive methods in Akasta Town, North East Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 women of reproductive age between March and May 2016 to achieve study aim. The actual respondents were selected by systematic sampling method at household level. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data.

Result: The prevalence of use of long acting contraceptives in the study area was found to be 33.6% and implants were the most commonly used methods. One hundred thirty one (46.8%) of respondents did not use these methods because of inadequate information provided for them.

Two hundred eighty one (66.6%) of respondents said that they knew at least one type of long acting methods and implants were widely known which accounts 139 (49.5%) of respondents. Age, husband’s educational status, knowledge of long acting reversible contraceptives and attitude towards these methods were significantly associated with use of these contraceptives.

Conclusions: The study showed that the prevalence of long acting reversible contraceptives in the study area was low. Only 33.6% of respondents ever used any type of these methods in their life time and implants were the most commonly used method. In this study, age of women, husband’s educational status, knowledge of long acting reversible contraceptives and attitude were found to be independent determinants for long acting reversible family planning use. As knowledge and practice of long acting contraceptives was low, extensive health information should be provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Platelet Alteration in Plasmodium vivax Malaria Patients in Thailand

Mohammand Sami Hayat, Polrat Wilairatana, Noppadon Tangpukdee, Srivicha Krudsood, Nalinrat Wilairat, Pichayapat Wilairat, Pimjira Thebpatipat

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i330125

Introduction: Malaria remains a global health problem. Malaria is often linked to thrombocytopenia as well as other hematological variations.

Objective: The aim of this study is to find the platelet changes in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 204 malaria patients admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand.

Results: Thrombocytopenia (<150x103/µl) was seen in 170(83.3%) patients with a mean (SD) of 101x103/µl (56.5). Mild (150x103/µl-50x103/µl), moderate (50x103/µl-20x103/µl) and severe (<20x103/µl) thrombocytopenia were seen in 141 (69.1%), 25 (12.2%) and 4 (2%) patients respectively. None of these patients with thrombocytopenia showed any sign of bleeding or required platelet transfusion.

Conclusion: This study showed thrombocytopenia as a classic feature of vivax malaria presenting more than 80% of cases. In patients with profoundly low thrombocyte counts there was no manifestation of bleeding nor was any platelet transfusion required.