Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Health Risk Associated with Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde in Public and Private Mortuaries in Rivers State, Nigeria

Obed-Whyte, Roland, K. E. Douglas, Nte, Alice

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i230115

Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is a well-known chemical widely used in mortuaries in Nigeria for the preservation of human cadavers, yet little is known of the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde in mortuaries. This study evaluated the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde in mortuaries in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study was carried out in 7 public and 8 private mortuaries and the concentrations of formaldehyde to which the morticians are exposed were measured during the embalmment process. Modeling of health related risk was carried out in accordance with methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).

Results: The results showed that the lethal concentrations of formaldehyde in the mortuaries far exceeded the “No Significant Risk Levels” (LC50 = 3.3 ppm for public mortuaries; and 3.46 ppm for private mortuaries). Analysis showed that 77.2% of workers in the public mortuaries have high daily formaldehyde exposure index, while 88.24% of the workers in the private mortuaries have high daily formaldehyde exposure index. The difference between the formaldehyde daily exposure index and daily potential dose in public and private mortuaries was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Computed hazard quotients for both public and private were 1.25 and 3.0 respectively (> 1). Computed cancer related risk values for public and private mortuaries were 1.5x10-3 and 1.9x10-3 respectively.

Conclusion: The study showed that embalmers in both the public and private mortuaries in Rivers State occupationally exposed to formaldehyde have significant risk of developing carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic related health problems. It is therefore, recommended that operators of mortuaries and Rivers State Government should provide FA monitoring device and continuous health education for workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Hypertension and Diabetes in an Underserved Population through Community Outreach; A Case of Rural Community in Enugu State, Nigeria

C. Onodugo Obinna, C. Aniwada Elias, P. Onodugo Nkeiru

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i230116

Introduction: Hypertension and Diabetes are the commonest co-morbidity of each other and are among the principal cause of the burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. It is important to identify patients with these conditions early in the disease process. This study was

to determine the prevalence of elevated Blood Pressure (BP) and elevated Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) as well as relate it to the characteristics of the study participants in a rural community in Enugu State, Nigeria.

Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in form of outreach was done. The study was conducted over 1 week period among participants aged 18 years and above. Proforma was used in collecting information on characteristics of participants including age, sex and occupation. Measurements of BP, FBS and BMI were done. Chi square test and Binary Logistic Regression were used for analysis.

Results: Majority of participants were aged > 45 years 127(56.7%), and females 139(62.1%),Mean(SD) 46.89((21.84) Elevated BP 55(24.6%), elevated FBS 42(18.8%), both elevated BP and FBS. 13(5.8%). higher proportion of those aged > 45 years had elevated BP 51(92.7%) and elevated FBS 37(88.1%). More Females had elevated BP 35(63.6%) and elevated FBS 28(66.7%). Predictors were; age >45 years for elevated BP (AOR 18.4; 95% CI 5.7-59.5) and for have elevated FBS (AOR 8.9; 95% CI 3.0-26.5).

Conclusion: Prevalence of raised BP and FBS as well as co-morbid condition was high. It was more among females and older age. Age was a predictor of both raised BP and FBS. This calls for interventional programmes that will assist in limiting the increasing burden of the diseases in rural communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Serum Urea, Creatinine and Hemoglobin Level in Chronic Renal Failure of Pre and Post Dialysis at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kedir Endris Hassen, Addisu Gize Yeshanew

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i230117

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate serum urea, creatinine and hemoglobin level in chronic renal failure pre and post dialysis at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methodology: Cross sectional study design was conducted From February to May 2017 to all chronic kidney failure patients Ethio-Egyptian Nephrology unit in SPHMMC Addis Ababa Ethiopia. 5 ml of the blood was obtained from each patient before and after dialysis. Each sample was divided in to two; half of the blood was placed in tubes containing anticoagulant (EDTA) and half in clot activator tubes. Clotted blood was centrifuge to separate serum and used for the estimation of creatinine and urea. Non-clotted blood samples were used for complete blood count and hemoglobin in blood Analyzer Sysmax KX-21. Percentages of reduction in urea and creatinine values were calculated using the values of blood samples withdrawn from each patient before and after each hemodialysis sessions.

Results: A total of 33 chronic kidney patients participated in this study. Out of this only 26 patients (78.79%) attend the dialysis unit for four months the rest either passed away or kidney transplantation done. The study population comprised 80.8% male and 19.2% female. Before the dialysis, 12 (46.2%) patients serum urea level was 101-122 mg/dl, however after dialysis, 14 (53.8%) patients had serum urea level were between 20 – 50.99 mg/dl and 11 (42.3%) patients had serum urea level were between 51 – 100 mg/dl. Most of the patients, (53.8%) undergoing hemodialysis serum creatinine level before dialysis were between 7.6 – 10.5 mg/dl. The majority of patients’ (42.3%), serum creatinine level after dialysis was between 3.0 – 3.92 mg/dl.  The majority (73.1%) of the patient hemoglobin level was between 7.0 – 11.0 mg/dl and 23.1% of the patients were between 11.1 – 14.0 mg/dl. Patients with chronic kidney disease have high serum urea and creatinine level before hemodialysis.

Conclusion: Hemodialysis decreases the burden of kidney in chronic kidney disease patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Patterns in Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Cross-sectional Study of Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Ho Municipality, Ghana

Sylvester Franklin Duncan Adjato, Enos Oduro Amoako, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Hope Agbodzakey, Philip Apraku Tawiah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i230118

Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are vulnerable to asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and this can lead to long lasting kidney problems.

Aim: This cross-sectional study assessed the bacterial profile and examined the sensitivity patterns of the isolated bacteria among the SCD patients.

Methods: From January 2014 to April 2014, Seventy-one (71) patients were consecutively sampled from the sickle cell clinic of Volta Regional Hospital, Ho-Ghana. Mid-stream urine samples were collected for culture and sensitivity. Bacteria isolated were identified and tested for their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Independent t-test, Pearson Chi‑square test and ANOVA were used to determine mean, standard deviations, associations and differences in groups. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The study showed a bacteria profile of Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus and Citrobacter spp among the SCD participants. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns depicted Escherichia coli as sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin while Citrobacter spp. was sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Staphylococus aureus was sensitive to cotrimoxazole with all three isolates resistant to ampicillin. 8.5% of the participants had asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and was more in females (66.7%) than in males (33.3%) and in SS genotype (83.3%) than in SC genotype (16.7%).

Conclusion: The research found the prevalence of ASB among SCD patients to be most common in females and SS genotypes. Escherichia coli was the predominant isolate and this isolate was susceptible to nitrofurantoin but highly resistant to ampicillin. Urine culture and sensitivity should be included in the clinical assessments of SCD patients and education and awareness on the importance of personal hygiene, particularly in sickle cell disease patients should also be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluctuation of Serum Apelin Level during Pregnancy

Sherif Wagih Mansour, Ali Khalil Asalah, Kamelia Ibrahim Attia, Somya E. l. Sayed Mohammed, Ahmad Desoky

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i230119

Background: Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Apelin receptor (APJ), The expression of both apelin and APJ has been detected in a variety of tissues including  heart, brain ,ovary , placenta and uterus.

Aim of the Study: This study was designed to examine the circulating levels of apelin, estradiol, progesterone, glucose, insulin and Tumor necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α)  in non-pregnant, pregnant rats at different stages of  pregnancy.

Materials and Methods: Sixty adult albino rats (48 females and 12 males). Female rats were randomly divided into (non -pregnant rats, early pregnant rats on day 6 of gestation, mid pregnant rats on day 12 of gestation and rats late pregnant rats on day 19 of gestation. The blood samples were obtained from the orbital venous plexus of animals and serum was separated from each blood sample and kept deep frozen until analysed.

Results: The present study revealed that the serum levels of apelin were progressively  and significantly increased from early (day 6) to mid-pregnancy (day 12) of gestation when compared to non- pregnant rats then showed a marked decrease on day 19 when compared to pregnant rats on day 12 of gestation.

Conclusion: The fluctuations in serum apelin levels during pregnancy may be attributed to changes in serum levels of multiple interrelated factors such as insulin, insulin resistance, pro inflammatory cytokines such as TNF α and other factors such as changes in fat mass, the  expression of angiotensin converting enzyme related carboxy peptidase-2 (ACE 2) and hormonal levels during pregnancy.