Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Water-pipe Smoking among Arab Students in Malaysia - and Its Associated Factors

Ali Anbeeh A. I., Meer Ahmad A. M.

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45602

Background: The prevalence of water-pipe smoking has been rapidly increasing among youths throughout the world.

According to WHO, more than 100 million people use water-pipe regularly.

Objective: The purpose of this Study is to estimate the prevalence of water-pipe smoking among Arab-students in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, and its association with socio-demographic factors, besides assessing their knowledge on the health-outcomes of water-pipe smoking, and relate such knowledge with the same socio-demographic factors.  The Aim is also to identify the main attractants to water-pipe smoking, besides the participants’ stand on banning such activity.

Method: This Study was conducted among Arab-students at convenient places in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor in 2017. The students were above 18 and studying in universities. A community-based cross-sectional study among 243 students (selected using a non-probability snowball sampling method) was conducted.  The data was collected using a pre-tested, self-administered Questionnaire.

Results: The Study showed high prevalence of Water-pipe smoking of 33.7%. Male students had a higher prevalence than female (37.1%; 29% respectively). Age was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.01). Those with poor knowledge about water-pipe smoking were found to be 38.3%. Slightly more than half of the water-pipe smokers (51.2%) had started smoking before the age of 18.

Conclusion: This Study proves that water-pipe smoking among Arab-students remains a significant public health concern. Thus, there is an urgent need for the Malaysian authorities to implement new regulations on water-pipe smoking. Further studies should be done among different migrant-populations and locals in Malaysia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Diets with Physical Fitness on Body Composition and Lipid Profiles among Students at School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University

Tariku Sisay Eshete, Wondyefraw Mekonen, Hana Derseh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45246

Background: Overweight and obesity are significant health problems all over the world in all ages.

Objective: To compare the effect of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets with physical fitness on body composition and lipid profiles of students at Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences.

Methodology: A comparative cross-sectional study design was carried out on 75 study participants (males= 41 and females=34) with age range of 19-29: mean 24.6 ± 7.23 years. The data were collected twice after participants consumed vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) diets for 7-weeks each. After each dietary habit, a structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic, dietary habits and general health of the participants. Following this, anthropometric measurements were taken. Percentage of body fat (%BF) was determined using skinfold caliper at: abdomen, suprailiac region and triceps. VO2 max (maximum oxygen uptake) was estimated by Queen’s College Step Test (QCT).

Results: Compared to a non-vegetarian diet, a vegetarian diet consumption was significantly associated with lower body weight, BMI, %BF, and FM (fat mass) (P<0.05). However, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, and fat-free mass did not significantly differ between the two diet groups. As compared to non-vegetarian diet, vegetarian diet had significantly higher HDL-C and lower TC and TC/HDL-C values. VO2 max was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05) in both dietary patterns.

Conclusion: The use of vegetarian diet for at least 7-weeks was associated with optimal body composition and lipid profiles when compared to non-vegetarian diet consumption in healthy individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Impairment among Employees of Nightclubs in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Chikezie Charles Chikezie, Ibidabo David Alabere

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45955

Background: Hearing loss due to noise exposure in occupational settings is a significant health problem with economic consequences. Studies have implicated entertainment noise in contributing to the burden of hearing loss. This study was undertaken to determine the level of occupational noise exposure and hearing impairment among employees of night clubs in Port Harcourt metropolis.

Methodology: The study was carried out in Port Harcourt metropolis and employed a descriptive cross sectional design. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 260 employees whose data were captured using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. An android based hearing test and sound pressure level meter were also used to collect data on hearing loss and to record sound pressure level of the night clubs during normal activities. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Results: The study found that average sound level of night clubs in Port Harcourt metropolis was 100.9dBA. Additionally, majority (93.7%) of employees work more than 8 hours daily and most (98.8%) of these employees do not use hearing protection devices. The commonest (69.9%)reason for not using was management’s failure to provide. The study also revealed that 71.1% of the respondents had mild hearing loss.

Furthermore, the results showed that hearing loss was associated with age (P = .003), sex (P = .01), educational status (P = .000) and previous exposure to occupational noise (P = .000). Similarly, there was a relationship between duration of employment (P = .04), job description (P = .01) and hearing loss.

Conclusion: Based on this study finding, workers are exposed to sound levels above the maximum permissible limit of 85 dB for more than 8 hours daily and majority of these workers do not wear hearing protection devices. This could possibly be the reason for the high prevalence of hearing loss among employees of night clubs in Port Harcourt. Also, hearing loss was associated with age, sex, level of education, previous exposure to occupational noise, duration of employment and job description. It is therefore imperative for nightclub owners to be aware of the dangers of excessive noise and subsequently provide hearing protection devices for employees of these night clubs especially the disk jockeys, bouncers, bartenders and also wait-staff perhaps if noise reduction is not feasible.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Pilot Correlative Study of Anthropometric Indices with Lipid Parameters in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Participants in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Elekima, Ibioku, Ugwu, Chioma Jossy

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/46269

Aim: The study was aimed at correlative and comparative assessment of anthropometric indices and lipid parameters in normal weight, overweight and obese individuals as a means of evaluating their cardiovascular risks.

Study Design: A pilot study was carried out in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was conducted within a period of 4 months (June – September, 2018). A total of 82 participants were selected from the recruitment process after consenting to participant in the study. Anthropometric measurements and lipid parameters analysis were done at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: 5mls of fasting blood samples were collected into lithium heparin bottles and spun at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma. Total cholesterol (TC) and Triglyceride (TG) were analysed based on enzymatic methods. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was analysed using precipitation and enzymatic method while low density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated using Friedewald equation. Anthropometric measurements were collected using stadiometer, non-stretchable tape and weighing scale.

Results: Significant increases were seen in lipid parameters (HDL-C indicated a decrease) as well as in BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR of obese (OB) and overweight (OV) participants compared to normal weight (N) participants. Correlation of anthropometric indices with lipid parameters in obese (OB) indicated significant positive correlation between WC and LDL-C, WHR and TC as well as between WHR and LDL-C. Significant negative correlations were seen between BMI and HDL-C, WC and HDL-C as well as between WHR and TG in Normal participants while significant positive correlation was seen between WHtR and TG.

Conclusion: Elevated TG, TC, and LDL-C and reduced HDL-C were seen in overweight and obese participants which are risk factors of CVD. Anthropometric indices such as WC and WHR were seen to be better and sensitive predictor of CVD risks especially in obese subject compared to BMI and WHtR.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Preliminary Review of Diversity in the Healthcare Workplace

Jennings Hernandez, Anjali Kumar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45586

It is estimated that over 80% of those enrolled in medical schools, nursing school, and the allied health programs are Whites, while African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans comprise about 7% each. The reason for these devastating numbers is the lack of encouragement in the underserved population in grade school and at home. Most K-12 schools in the U.S. do not require passing math and sciences courses to graduate. In addition, the lack of scholarship and sponsorship for minorities to pay for healthcare programs is immense. As a result, discrepancy of diversity could result. For instance, concerns over a lack of public health opportunities to target rural and underserved populations, communication barriers at the healthcare facilities, and discrimination in the workplace may derive. The aim of this paper is to highlight and review research on the relationship of sociocultural issues affecting diversity and equality in the healthcare workplace. The methodology used to gather information for this paper is by reviewing research papers, census reports and articles from journals and through websites. Improvement in diversity and equality is needed to avoid bias and discrimination at the healthcare workplace College admissions criteria, especially for minorities need to be reviewed, sciences and math subjects need to be implemented and encouraged in the K-12 setting, programs that foster mentorships and observer-ships with active physicians in the community needs to be created. If these measures are taken, the healthcare workforce would be one with ample diversity and thus productivity, creativity, and communication would improve.