Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Hazards and Safety Practices of Refuse Collectors in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State

Eli Precious Miwano, Alabere Ibidabo, Douglas Kingsley

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45368

Background: Municipal solid waste management, particularly in developing countries, involve manual or semi-automated handling of the waste materials. This exposes the waste collectors to physical, biological and chemical hazards [1] that could easily lead to injuries and diseases where adequate safety precautions and practices are not put in place. Solid waste collection and disposal in Port Harcourt metropolis is undertaken by the Rivers State Waste Management Authority with the use of contractors that employ predominantly manual procedures in their work that exposes the staff to hazards. This study was undertaken to identify the occupational hazards and safety practices among refuse collectors in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study design was employed for this study using a sample of 310 refuse collectors who were selected by a multistage sampling procedure. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Additionally, a walk-through was conducted at 10 different sites of refuse collection. The data collected was analysed using Epi-info version 7.

Results: The findings from this study revealed that refuse collectors are exposed to physical, chemical & biological, psychosocial and ergonomics hazards in proportions of 72.08%, 94.9%, 39.32% and 48.65% respectively. On safety practices, 24.0% had good safety practices while a majority of 75.93% had bad safety practices. Some of the safety measures identified from the study included the provision of clean water and soap, maintenance of equipment, job rotation and traffic control amongst others.

Conclusion: This study revealed that refuse collectors in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area are at risk of exposure to many occupational hazards which is a big problem because the workers generally lack any form of safety protection against these hazards. Majority of them have not engaged in any safety training. It is necessary that adequate personal protective equipment is provided for them to reduce their exposure to these hazards and quality safety training also provided for them to improve their knowledge of the dangers they are exposed to and teach them ways to keep themselves protected.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Statistical Approach towards Cervical Cancer Awareness among Women in Ghana

Agartha A. Boateng, Tosin A. Adesuyi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45447

Cervical cancer is the fourth-most common cancer in females worldwide, with a large number of mortality rate occurrence in under-developed and developing countries. However, this huge mortality rate can be curb through awareness about the deadly disease, its vaccination, and a positive attitude towards regular cervical cancer screening activities. Consequently, it will mitigate HPV infection, early detection and treatment of the condition at its pre- cancerous stage. Hence, this study presented an approach to assist in ascertain the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and attitude towards screening among women using female students of UDS tamale campus, Ghana as a case study. Data was obtained by using a stratified random sampling method to interview 304 female students by the use of a well-structured, pre- tested questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 and direct content analysis of themes were conducted manually on the data. The result shows that 40.1% had poor knowledge, 40.5% had fair knowledge and only 19.4% had good knowledge about cervical cancer. More so, 82.6% of the respondents were of the opinion that screening exercise and other preventive measures are of necessity even when there is no symptom of the disease. Findings shows that there exist a positive relationship between attitude and knowledge. The study also revealed that only 11.21% of the total population had undergone cervical screening exercise. Conclusively, the knowledge about cervical cancer is poor, attitude towards cervical cancer screening is good however, fewer numbers of the women had undergone screening. Therefore sensitization about cervical cancer screening among women is of paramount importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among Prisoners in Sokoto, Nigeria

Onuigwe Festus Uchechukwu, Yakubu Abdulrahman, Aliyu Umar Aliyu, Ummu Mustaphar, Isaac Zama, Adias Teddy Charles, Ibrahim Kwaifa, Buhari Hauwa Ali, Okwesili Augustine, Ahmed Marafa, Erhabor Osaro, Udomah Francis Patrick, Imoru Momudu, Bagudo Aliyu Ibrahim, Okorie Hope

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/33128

Prisoners are at exceptional risk of viral infection because of the numerous high risk activities associated with incarceration. Prisons are incubators for infectious disease, yet are not readily accessible for screening and intervention. They provide a high-yield opportunity for early prison employees, but also family members and the general population.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among prisoners in Sokoto State central prison, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study involving male prisoners because of certain religious reasons we were not allowed access to female prisoners

Duration: The study lasted for three months between April to June, 2015

Methodology: A total of 99 male prisoners from Sokoto State central prison had their blood samples collected and screened for antibodies against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatits C Virus (HCV) using the principle of lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay. HBV screening test carried out using Onsite HBs Ag rapid test Dip-strip (plasma) by Nantong Economy and Technology Development Zone, China. While HCV screening was done using HCV Ab plus rapid test strip (plasma) by Nantong Economy and Technology Development Zone, China. And HIV screening carried out using onsite HIV 1/2 Ab plus Combo Rapid Test by CTK Biotech, Inc. United State of America.

Results: The sero-prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV was 1.0%, 11.1%, and 4.0% respectively of the 99 prisoners screened. None of the prisoners practice homosexuality. The age 18-35 years were mostly affected. Seroprevalence of HBV among the prisoners (11.1%) was high.

Conclusion: This study indicates a high prevalence of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV among prisoners. There is need for prison-focused intervention initiatives in Nigeria including awareness programmes about these infections. Resources for testing and treatment of prisoners should be provided. Care providers for prisoners should be empowered to protect the privacy and confidential health care information about prisoners to prevent stigmatization.

Open Access Minireview Article

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis of the Genitourinary System

Jennings Hernandez, Anjali Kumar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45580

Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of the infected person to the uninfected. Its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Once the infection has been established in the lungs it can then disseminate to multiple sites and organs of the body to cause a secondary infection. In this specific scenario the hematogenous dissemination carries the causative agents to the many components of the genitourinary system causing an infection in either they epididymis, testicles, prostate, urethra, kidney or bladder [1]. The onset and non‑specific symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non‑functioning kidney. However treatment is available in the course of antibiotics for six-months.

Open Access Case Study

Coats Disease in Nigeria: A Case Series

B. Fiebai, T. S. Oluleye, I. O. Omaka

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/46010

Aims: To report a series of four cases of Coats disease in black Nigerians, a rare disorder.

Study Design: A case series.

Place and Duration of Study: Retina unit of the departments of ophthalmology at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State and the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Duration of study was 2014-2018.

Methodology: Case folders of patients who presented to the retina units of the University College Hospital Ibadan, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and a peripheral eye hospital between 2014 and 2018, were reviewed. Data collected includes age, sex, presenting visual acuity, findings on fundus examination and reports of ancillary tests.

Results: Four eyes of 4 patients were reviewed. There were 2 males and 2 females. 3 of the four cases were found in children while one case presented in adulthood. All eyes presented with profound visual loss with uniocular presentation and exudative retinal detachments at the late stages, with poor visual prognosis.

Conclusion: Coat’s disease though an uncommon ocular disorder in Nigeria, does exist and may have been underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Routine examination of children is pertinent in early diagnosis and prompt treatment to save vision and a good knowledge of its clinical presentation may lead to more case findings.