Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of CA 125 Salivary Level with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Karachi

Shumaila Younus, Naila Younus, Haya Muhammad Khan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45098

Aims: To estimate salivary CA125 levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and to compare salivary CA 125 levels with different clinicopathological features of OSCC.

Study Design: A cross­sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin Hospital (Dental OPD), Karachi, Pakistan. In between the period of November 2014-Febuary 2016.

Methodology: This cross­sectional study included 138 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and 30 healthy individuals between 20-69 years (130 males and 38 females). A Detailed Performa was filled followed by saliva sample collection from each subject was accomplished. Enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay (ELISA) analysed saliva samples for CA125.

Results: Most common 30–39 years age group (29.7%) was involved, and majority of patients were belonged to Urdu speaking ethnic group (55.8%). Buccal mucosa (58.0%) was most commonly effected site and frequent histopathological pattern was moderately differentiated carcinoma (43.5%) with a maximum number of cases were found in stage III and IV (37%, 40%).

Mean salivary CA125 levels were significantly lower in healthy group (29.8 U/ml) as compared to OSCC patients (413 U/ml). Mean salivary CA125 levels were higher in 50-59 years age group (488.5 U/ml), in Pathan ethnic group (451.7 U/ml) and in alveolar ridge site (upper and lower) (522.4 U/ml). Increased salivary CA125 levels in male (422.28 U/ml) as compared to female (163.23 U/ml) OSCC patients. Increased mean salivary CA 125 levels were found in poorly differentiated carcinoma (597.2 U/ml). A gradual increase in mean salivary CA 125 levels from stage I to stage IV (153.4 to 593.1 U/ml) showing its role in the progression of the OSCC disease.

Conclusion: CA 125 levels were identified to be raised in the saliva of OSCC. Present study reported that the salivary CA 125 levels increase with the stages of disease. Our study estimated that there is an association of salivary CA125 levels with different stages of OSCC. Thus, CA125 can be used as a helpful tool in the prognosis of OSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aetiologic Agents of Vaginitis in Sexually Active Women in a Traditional Sprawling Town in the Niger Delta, South – South Nigeria

I. A. Atting, M. A. Christopher, I. A. Onwuezobe, K. N. Opara

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/44735

Aims: The study investigated the prevalence of aetiologic agents of vaginitis in sexually active women and assessed the influence of some economic factors on the prevalence of these diseases.

Study Design: A total of 150 randomly selected women attending clinics in a General Hospital were involved in this research study. They all gave written informed consent prior to enrolment into this study.

Methodology: The study was based on microscopy and culture, including biochemical tests. Questionnaires were also administered.

Results: Higher prevalence of various aetiologic agents in pregnant women (p<0.05) was recorded. Primigravid women had a higher prevalence of Candida albicans when compared to other agents. It was found that pregnant women who used contraceptives prior to their recent pregnancies had more infections of Gardnerella vaginalis while non-pregnant women on antibiotics had increased prevalence of C. albicans. The highest prevalence of C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis co-infections was seen in pregnant women.  Irrespective of the women’s status, none were co-infected with the three microbial agents.

Conclusion: The risks of reproductive health implications among pregnant women raise the dire need to eradicate these infections. Increased screening for pregnant women is therefore essential in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes among sexually active women. Emphasis should be placed on improved personal hygiene and other effective intervention programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitudes of Anaesthetic Resident Doctors, Anaesthetic Nurses and Psychiatric Nurses towards Electroconvulsive Therapy

Monday N. Igwe, Emmanuel O. Olose, Afamefuna O. Okeke, Miriam C. Aguocha, Okwudili Obayi, Appolos C. Ndukuba, Richard Ewah, Kehinde O. Bankole

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/40326

Objectives: This study assessed the level of knowledge and attitudes of resident anaesthetic doctors, anaesthetic nurses and psychiatric nurses working at a teaching hospital in southeast Nigeria towards electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 102 participants. A socio-demographic questionnaire and modified Questionnaire on attitude and knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy (QuAKE) were administered to all consenting anaesthetic resident doctors, anaesthetic nurses and psychiatric nurses working at a tertiary hospital in southeast Nigeria.

Results: Total mean scores on the QuAKE by the participants were 7.15 ± 2.25 for the anaesthetic resident doctors, 5.18 ± 2.33 for the anaesthetic nurses and 6.78 ± 2.63 for the psychiatric nurses out of a possible maximum score of 16. Observation of ECT and length of work experience had no significant effect on QuAKE scores among the three professionals tested.

Conclusion: Total mean scores on the QuAKE by resident anaesthetic doctors, anaesthetic nurses and psychiatric nurses were poor. There is a need to incorporate lectures with practical demonstrations on ECT into the training and continuing medical education of these 3 professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction with Waiting Time: Assessment of Outpatients' Socio-demographic Characteristics

R. S. Maalman, A. Pielong, Y. O. Donkor, P. Adatara

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/44055

Aims: The study was structured to determine socio-demographic characteristics that influence clients' satisfaction with waiting time for health service delivery at the Out-patient Department. 

Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional descriptive approach among clients who attended Out-Patient Departments for health services during the study period; November 2015 to October 2016. A total of one thousand (1000) clients made of 404 males and 596 females participated in the study. The data was collected using a questionnaire. The literates were given the questionnaire to fill while it was translated to the illiterates and responses written into the questionnaire. Questionnaires were collected the same day. Cross-tabulation of satisfaction with time spent and socio-demographic characteristics with chi-square test was performed.  

Results: Majority (29.1%) of clients recruited were within the age range of 20 – 29 years while 8.8% were 60 years and above. Fifty nine point six percent (59.6%) were females and 52.9% of the respondents were married.  Furthermore, majority of the respondents were self-employed and 43% of government employees were dissatisfied. The result shows that age, educational level and occupation of clients have a significant influence on the satisfaction with the time clients spent at the hospital. The average time spent at the Out-Patient Departments was between 1-4 hours to receive health services. Clients did not meet their expectation of time spent at the Out-Patient Departments. However, 67.3% of clients were satisfied with the time spent at the OPD, for services.

Conclusion: Clients' satisfaction with time spent at the Out-Patient Departments was influenced by the age, educational level and occupation of the clients. Clients within the ages of 20 to 49 years were more dissatisfied with time spent than the teenagers and the elderly. Overall satisfaction with time spent was however high.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Selected Risky Behaviours among Adolescents of Private and Public Secondary Schools in Ughelli, Delta State, Nigeria

Ejiroghene Akpobome, Bliss Mark Moore, Felix Emeka Anyiam

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/45218

Background: Adolescent risky behaviours are of public health concern globally. Risky behaviours are often initiated during adolescence which can lead to morbidity and mortality in individuals. The main aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol intake and risky sexual behaviour among senior secondary school adolescents attending public and private schools in Ughelli North local government area of Delta state, Nigeria.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study design was adopted for this study. The study was carried out in four private schools and two public schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria from May to June 2018. Multi stage sampling technique was used for the study. An interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 282 study participants. 141 attended public schools while 141 attended private schools. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and proportion) and inferential statistics (logistic regression and chi-square (c2) where a p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant).

Results: 282 questionnaires were administered and all were retrieved which yielded a 100% response rate. This study found statistically significant differences in alcohol intake (31.2% vs. 59.6%; p=0.001; OR=0.31; 95%CI: 0.19-0.50) and risky sexual behaviour (23.4% vs. 5.6%; p=0.001; OR=5.07; 95%CI: 2.25- 11.45) among adolescents attending public and private senior secondary schools. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Conclusion: Alcohol intake was more prevalent among private school participants while risky sexual behaviour was more prevalent among public school participants in this study. Therefore, collective efforts are required from the family, school, community, government and non-governmental organizations to curb risky behaviours among secondary school adolescents in Ughelli North local government area of Delta state, Nigeria.