Open Access Review Article

Herbal Approach towards the Cure of Diabetes Mellitus— A Review

Jabbar Ahmed Qureshi, Zahida Memon, Kausar Moin Mirza, Fizza Saher

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42470

Diabetes mellitus, a silent killer, is a disease which is characterized by altered metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and lipids, classically present as raised blood glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in increasing rapidly in both high and low-income countries. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by uncontrolled high blood glucose levels as an outcome of deficient pancreatic insulin release or poor insulin-coordinated utilization of glucose by glucose utilizing cells. Diabetes mellitus is related to a number of metabolic manifestations like atherosclerosis, with further consequences like cardiovascular disease and stroke that can lead to premature death. Numerous therapeutic agents that are available for the treatment of diabetes however these drugs have a number of restrictions, and the whole restoration from diabetes have not been accounted up till now. Herbs have been utilized from old time to cure the humankind because of their presumed lesser adverse effects, relatively high availability and relatively low cost; herbs are admired by general public. This review high lights the role of different herbs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus along with their predicted mechanism of action in relation to clinical investigations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expectations and Realities: The Views and Experiences of HIV/AIDS Patients on Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

Alhassan Abdullah, Jamil Tanimu, Hajara Bentum

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42452

Potential beneficiaries of health insurance schemes are convinced to enrol based on varied expectations and justifications. This is so for persons leaving with HIV/AIDS. Considering the myriad of challenges confronting these insurance schemes, the current study explored the views and lived experiences of HIV/AIDS patients on the challenges and influence of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on healthcare service usage in Ghana. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 17 HIV/AIDS patients, the study revealed proactiveness and shift to modern healthcare usage as major influences of the NHIS on healthcare usage. The capitation policy, frequent drug shortage and health workers posture were identified as major hindrances to the successful implementation of the NHIS in Ghana. Also, it emerged that HIV/AIDS patients’ expectations prior to enrolment were not met as claimed by friends and family members. The findings suggest that some measures should be put in place to educate potential beneficiaries on the NHIS to ensure that their intentions of enrolment are realised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stressors in First Year Medical Students and Its Relation to Academic Performance

S. Sujatha, P. G. Venugopalan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42673

Aims: Objectives are to find out the prevalence of academic related stress in first-year medical students of Government Medical College, Kollam and to find out the relation if any, between stress and academic performance.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Government Medical College, Kollam, for a period of 3 months starting from November 2017 to January 2018.

Methodology: Medical students' stressor questionnaire was given to first-year MBBS students one week after completion of a first sessional examination. Data analysed on stress score and relation to marks of each student.

Results: Out of 100 students, 88 students gave back the completed questionnaire in the given stipulated time, with a response rate of 88%. Everyone was having stress with 11.4% having mild to moderate stress and rest 88.6% having severe stress. There was no relation between stress and academic performance.

Conclusion: Prevalence of stress in first-year medical students is very high, with a significant number having a high level of stress. There was no statistically significant association between stress and academic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Lead and Micronutrients Levels in Public Transport Drivers in Osogbo, Nigeria

Ayu Agbecha, Ajayi K. Eyitayo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/41595

Background of Study: Toxic exposure to lead (Pb) in humans occurs through environmental and occupational sources like leaded gasoline. Despite the ban on the use of leaded gasoline by many regulatory authorities due to its adverse health effects, Nigeria remains among nations using leaded fuel.

Aim: The study aimed to determine toxic lead exposure to gasoline fumes and its impact on plasma levels of micronutrients (zinc [Zn], copper [Cu], and calcium [Ca]) in public transport drivers in Nigeria. 

Materials and Methods: The case-control study, compared serum micronutrient levels of 40 occupational lead exposed public transport drivers with physically matched 40 non-occupational lead exposed civil servicemen. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Ca in the serum of the study subjects were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.

Results: Results analyzed with the t-test showed that mean serum lead level in public transport drivers was significantly (P=0.000) high compared to the control group. Also, micronutrient levels were significantly (P=0.000) lower in occupational than non-occupational lead-exposed men. Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant positive correlation between Cu and Ca (r=0.481, P=0.002), Zn and Cu (r=0.635, P=0.000), Zn and Ca (r=0.456, P=0.003). Whereas an inverse but non-significant correlation between lead and Cu (r=-0.275), lead and Ca (r=-0.130), lead and Zn (r=-0.121) was observed at the 0.05 level.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the study results indicate that exposure to lead can significantly decrease serum zinc, copper, and calcium. The decrease in micronutrient level in the drivers could be through renal loss, mediated by the nephrotoxic effect of lead.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Prediabetes and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in the Central Indian Population

Mohammad Nadeem Khan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42567

Pre-diabetes can be recognized as either impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). One hundred forty subjects participating in the different medical hospital out patient’s department (OPDs) were selected. The study comprised sixty control and sixty prediabetic individuals aged 30-60 years. A positive correlation was observed between fasting serum glucose, anthropometric parameters cardiovascular parameters and biochemical parameters except for HDL cholesterol which showed a negative correlation. This study has important implications for identification of subjects at higher risk for future type-2 diabetes and suggested that mass screening of aggressive risk modification and close follow-up should be considered for prediabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome. Appropriate intercession in the form of weight reduction, changes in dietary habits and increased physical activity could help to prevent, or at least delay the onset of diabetes and thus reduce the burden due to noncommunicable diseases in India.