Open Access Review Article

Epstein-Barr Virus; A Nascent Viral Link with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Muhammad Wasif Saleem, Qamar Jamal, Faraz Ahmed Baig

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42311

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancy among both sexes worldwide. Incidence rates have been found to be increasing throughout the world from past few decades. Other than known etiologies like alcohol, smoking and tobacco, viral association has been found to be significant in some cases. Recently, a few studies have stressed on the significance on the role of Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) in OSCC as a risk factor. In this review article, we try to merge facts and link of EBV with OSCC on the basis of multiple significant past studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic, Pancreatic, and Renal Histo-Morphologic Alterations in Administration of Aqueous and Ethanol Seed Extract of Buchholzia coriacea in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

K. O. Gbagbeke, A. O. Naiho, B. C. Okonkwo, M. A. Omoirri, V. Emojevwe, G. T. Olowe, O. M. Odigie

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/41928

Physiologically, Insulin is a hormone that helps the body’s cells to absorb glucose (sugar) so it can be used as a source of energy. In diabetics, however, due to the pancreatic production of insufficient amounts of insulin or failure of body’s cells to respond to available insulin, blood and urine glucose levels build up to cause excessive urination, thirst, hunger, and problems with fat and protein break down. Recently, medicinal herbs have been implicated in traditional medical practice for the treatment of this ailment (Diabetes Mellitus, DM). The present study sought to investigate the effect(s) of oral administration of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea on the liver, pancreas and kidney in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Forty (40) adult rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into two groups (normoglycemic and hyperglycemic). While group 1 (normoglycemic) had normal control, metformin, aqueous extract (250mg/kg) and ethanol extract (250 mg/kg) treated sub-groups respectively, Group 2 (hyperglycemic) contained the diabetic control, metformin, aqueous extract (250 mg/kg), and ethanol extracted (250 mg/kg) treated sub-groups dosed daily by oral gavage for 14 days. At the end of treatment, rats were euthanized via cervical dislocation; with selected visceral (liver, pancreas and kidney) harvested and observed for histo-architectural changes. Blood samples were also collected and checked for sugar levels. Slight modulations were seen in the histo-morphology of the pancreas, liver and renal tissues as Buccholzia Coriacea apparently posed some hypoglycemic effects. Hitherto, there was an appreciable improvement and merit in the use of the extract in the management of diabetes across groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunohistochemical Expression of Epstein-Bar Virus in Biopsies Bearing Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Muhammad Wasif Saleem, Faraz Ahmed Baig, Zahida Memon

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42096

Background: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer across the world. In Pakistan oral squamous cell carcinoma ranks second among all cancer in both men and women. Several risk factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma have been established which includes; smoking, alcohol, betel quid and Human Papilloma Virus infection. Epstein-Bar virus has been recently linked with development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in multiple studies. We therefore, attempt to investigate the expression of Epstein-Bar virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsy samples using immunohistochemistry.

Methods: A total of 150 biopsy proven oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were investigated for expression of Epstein-Bar virus protein using immunohistochemistry. The data were then compared for association with age, gender and biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Results: 34 out of 150 samples were positive for Epstein-Bar virus infection. Most of the positive cases were males and predominantly affected buccal mucosa for neoplastic lesions. Most well known risk factors of the disease was significantly associated with EBV. Uniform distribution of EBV and different morphological patterns of oral squamous cell carcinoma was also observed.

Conclusion: Epstein-Bar virus may be considered as a risk factor in etiopathogenesis of all forms of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We suggest that oncogenic effect of EBV may be enhanced by other chemical carcinogens; although more investigation is needed on a large series of cohort to confirm these findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smoking Effects of Marijuana and Cigarette on Blood Chemistry, Hematology and Plasma Dopamine Levels in Young Adults

O. A. T. Ebuehi, C. E. Ukwade, O. T. Adegbola

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/41637

Aim: Smoking is an increasing problem in public health world-wide. Smoke from marijuana and cigarette have been shown to contain many toxins. This study investigated the effect of marijuana and cigarette smoking on hematology, blood chemistry and plasma dopamine level of smokers in comparison to non-smokers.

Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from thirty randomly selected Nigerian male and female non-smokers (control) and thirty smokers each. Analytical biochemical procedures and standard Randox diagnostic kits were used to determine the blood chemistry, hematology, electrolytes and plasma dopamine level of smokers and non–smokers.

Results: The completely randomized design study revealed no significant (p>0.05) difference in the blood chemistry, hematological parameters, electrolytes and plasma dopamine levels between the test and control subjects. Though within normal range, the values observed for total leucocytes were marginally higher in the cigarette smoking test subjects, while marginally lower in marijuana smoking test subjects when compared to the control (non-smokers). PCV and hemoglobin were marginally higher in all the test subject. Dopamine levels were marginally higher in all test subjects when compared to control.

Conclusion: This study showed that smoking of cigarette and marijuana marginally effected hemoglobin, PCV, leukocyte count and dopamine. The marginally lower leucocytes in marijuana smoking test subjects is an indication that cannabinoid, the psychoactive substance contained in marijuana, may reduce immune responses in marijuana users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Hearing Impairment in a Tertiary Institution in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

Waheed Atilade Adegbiji, Stanley Baba Amutta, Olawale Olubi, Gabriel Toye Olajide, Shuaib Kayode Aremu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/42161

Background: Hearing impairment is a common sensory impairment affecting all age group worldwide.

Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence, sociodemographic features, aetiology, audiometry findings, impact on quality of life and management of hearing impairment in a tertiary health institution in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a prevalence hospital-based study of patients with complaints of hearing impairment in the ear, nose and throat department of Ekiti state university teaching hospital, Ado Ekiti.   

The study was carried out from May 2017 to April 2018. Consent was obtained from the patients/parents/guardian.

Data were obtained by using pretested interviewers assisted questionnaire.

All the data obtained were collated, documented and analyzed using SPSS version 18.

Results: Prevalence of hearing impairment was 21.2%. There were 36.5% males and 63.5% female with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. Bilateral hearing impairment was predominant and accounted for 51.9%.

Common aetiologic factors of hearing impairment among the patients were; 20.2% earwax impaction, 13.5% ototoxicity, 12.5% otitis media, 11.5% presbyacusis, 11.1% otitis externa and 10.1% febrile illnesses.

Common clinical features were earwax, earache, hard of hearing/ear blockage, ear discharge and tinnitus in 49.5%, 45.2%, 40.4%, 36.5% and 29.8% respectively.

The most Common type of hearing impairment was a sensorineural hearing loss in 46.2%. Type A tympanometry (normal) was the commonest findings in 47.1%. Pure tone audiometry revealed mild, moderate and moderate-severe hearing impairment to be 44.7%, 27.9%, and 20.2% respectively.

Common effect on quality of life was the embarrassment, aggressiveness, social dysfunction and poor academic performance of 13.9%, 11.5%, 10.1% and 6.7%.

Majority of the patients in 63.5% had prehospital treatment. Conservative treatment was done in 26.9%. The surgery/procedure were done in 47.6%. Amplification and speech therapy in 13.5% and 6.7% respectively.

Conclusion: Hearing impairment is a hidden and common otologic disease with significant associated negative effect on quality of life in Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria.