Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Bidens pilosa Extracts on Escherichia coli O157: H7 Isolated from Apparently Healthy Individuals

D. E. Falowo, M. K. Oladunmoye

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/34516

This study was carried out to isolate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from fecal samples of children within the age range of 0-5 years from Mother and child hospital, Anchorite daycare, Womens’ forum daycare and FUTA daycare all in Akure, Ondo State. It is also aimed at extracting the bioactive component of the palnt using different solvents and determining the efficacy of the plant extracts on the bacterium by agar well diffusion and evaluating their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The strain showed a high frequency of single or multiple drug resistance (MDR) to the antibiotics tested. The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed various constituents which include: flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol, saponin, terpenoid, cardiacglycoside and tannin, 70% ethanol, cold water and chloroform were employed for the plant extraction. The ethanol extract of the plant was more potent, showing higher zone of inhibition, followed by water extract and the chloroform extract showed no zone of inhibition. The MIC exhibited was 50 mg/mL, 70 mg/mL for ethanol and 100 mg/mL and 120 mg/mL for water, and also the MBC exhibited was 70 mg/mL, 110 mg/mL, 150 mg/mL for ethanol and 140 mg/mL, 160 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL for water. The result suggests that the preparation of the plant exhibited significant in- vitro antibacterial activity against the bacterium and may be employed for the routine treatment of this infection as an alternative to antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Knowledge of Occupational Hazards and Control Measures among Healthcare Workers of the General Hospital, Minna

Agbana Busayo Emmanuel, Idris M. Sheshi, Juwon Johnson Orugun

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/39764

This study focused on the assessment of knowledge of occupational hazards and its control measures among healthcare workers of the General Hospital, Minna. The study was Cross-Sectional Descriptive. The population of the study included all permanent staffs working for at least 6 months. In this study, 300 sample size was used. Stratified Sampling Technique was adopted for allocating questionnaires. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS. The finding indicates that Healthcare workers of the General Hospital have a low level of knowledge on occupational hazards and its control due to non-exposure to training on occupational hazards, and this may constitute a danger to their health. The study concludes that less than 1/10th of the respondents were exposed to fluid from HIV/AIDS patients and that high number received Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP). This study, therefore, recommends that Health Education should be strengthened to enhance knowledge of health workers on the use of PPE and that Health workers should attend training on occupational hazards and control measures at the hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Stress and Anxiety in Women during Labour: A Case of Tamale West Hospital, Tamale, Ghana

Nafiu Amidu, Mustapha Alhassan, Habibu Issah, Vida Nyagre Yakong, Wahabu Yahaya, Yussif Adams, Peter Paul Mwinsanga Dapare

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/40373

Aim: To investigate the prevalence of intrapartum anxiety and stress, its effect on duration of labour as well as associated factors among parturient women.

Design: This study was a cross-sectional study.

Setting: This study was carried out at the Tamale West Hospital, Tamale, Ghana, from April to May 2017.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight (138) participants with a singleton pregnancy and cervical dilation of 4 cm were enrolled. Duration of labour, stress and anxiety were measured using the Friedman’s curve, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Perceived Stress Scale respectively.

Results: Among the 138 participants, the prevalence of a severe form of intrapartum anxiety and stress were 8.7% and 8.0% respectively. Analysis revealed that age, marriage duration, pre-pregnancy body mass index, height, weight, gestational age, duration of labour and parity showed significant association with stress and anxiety.

Conclusion: several factors were found to influence the occurrence of stress and anxiety among pregnant women in labour. It is essential to prevent or reduce intrapartum anxiety and stress from occurring by identifying all the high-risk women and strengthening intrapartum-related education and mental intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness: An Urban- Rural Comparison of Maternal and Child Health Clinic Attendees in Anambra State, Nigeria

U. M. Umeh, C. N. Onwasigwe, E. D. Adinma, C. C. Nnebue

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/40634

Background: Birth preparedness and complications readiness (BP/CR) remains a key component of safe motherhood programs, articulated to help improve maternal and child health care. This study determined and compared the knowledge of BP/CR among maternal and child health (MCH) clinic attendees in urban and rural areas of Anambra State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional comparative study of knowledge of BP/CR among 707 MCH clinic attendees in urban- rural areas of Anambra State, selected by multi-stage sampling technique conducted between January and May 2014. Data were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Descriptive data were presented as tables and charts, while associations between variables were determined using chi square test for proportions and Z-test for means.  Level of significance was set at p-values  0.05.

Results: Mean ages of respondents were 28. (±5.2) for urban and 29.1(±5.9) for rural. Majority of respondents (54.5%) in the urban, compared to (50.4%) in the rural had fair knowledge of BP (p= 0.109). Also, more respondents (59.5%) in urban and (62.1%) in rural had poor knowledge of CR (p =0.005). Bleeding was the most reported danger sign of pregnancy (73.6% for urban, and 85.2% for rural respondents).

Conclusions: Our study findings showed an overall fair knowledge of BP/CR  though better in urban than rural. .Appropriate interventions should be scaled up to improve the knowledge of the women concerning BP/CR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome Components in Obese and Overweight Young Adults of a Nigerian Private University

Adediji, Isaac Oluwole, Taiwo Timilehin Darasimi, Adepoju Paul Olusegun, Adelakun Ayodele Ademola, Akinleye Waheed Akindele, Afolabi Joy Oluwaseyifunmi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2018/40623

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities which confers upon an individual a substantial increase in cardiovascular disease risk – approximately twice as high as those without the syndrome.

Aim: The study assessed the relationship between serum cortisol and the components of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese students.

Materials and Methods: A total of ninety (n=90) subjects were recruited for this study which consisted of thirty (30) obese participants, thirty (30) overweight individuals and thirty (30) normal weight individuals who served as controls. About 7 ml of venous blood sample was collected from each participant within the age range of 17-25 years and serum was extracted. Anthropometric measurements were determined using standard methods. Fasting blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol were determined using enzymatic methods while serum cortisol was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Post-hoc, Pearson’s correlation and P<0.05 was considered significant. In this study, metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria.

Results: There was a significant increase in the level of serum cortisol in overweight and obese subjects in comparison to the control participants. There was also positive significant correlation between cortisol and glucose, cortisol and triglyceride. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between cortisol and HDL cholesterol in both overweight (r=-0.917, P=0.02) and obese (r=-0.365, P=0.04) subjects.

Conclusion: This study revealed that increased serum cortisol level in obese and overweight subjects correlates with more than two components of the metabolic syndrome. Taken together, data from this study revealed a noteworthy relationship between cortisol and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian young adults which suggests that metabolic stress is an underlying factor for elevated cortisol.