Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Omega-3 Supplements for the Amelioration of Glucose Levels and Lipid Profile Parameters in Female University: A Randomized Control Study

M. I. Elhabiby, K. Abo Hillal, N. Z. Al-Dahody, A. R. Shaikh Al-Eid, E. M. El-Nabaheen, A/R Hamad, S. A. Alsuhaibani, M. Hasan, A. H. Mohieldein

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38501

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the glucose levels and lipid profile parameters in female university students in Southern Gaza.

Materials and Methods: Sixty female university students were divided into two groups. The intervention group (n = 30) received omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (one capsule/day) for three months, while the control group students (n = 30) were allowed to consume standard oils. Blood samples (5 mL) were randomly collected using plain vacutainers before and after the three months of intervention. The blood glucose level and lipid profile parameters were measured using standard methods. Data were analysed using SPSS software.

Results: The present study showed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a significant impact on blood glucose levels and lipid profile parameters. The levels of glucose (83.9 ± 8.8 vs. 101.0 ± 11.7 md/dL, P = 0.000), total cholesterol (141.6 ± 15.0 vs. 165.4 ± 31.4 mg/dL, P = 0.001), triglycerides (137.6 ± 4.1 vs. 151.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, P = 0.000), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (67.1 ± 12.3 vs. 97.8 ± 32.8 md/dL, P = 0.000) significantly decreased, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly increased (47.0 ± 5.0 vs. 37.3 ± 2.1 mg/dL, P = 0.032) in the intervention group after omega-3 supplementation. In addition, BMI was significantly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.319, P = 0.016).

Conclusions: The present work documented a significant improvement in the glucose levels and lipid profile parameters following omega-3 supplementation in female university students. Therefore, we believe that regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can have a beneficial impact on dyslipidaemia, thus providing protection against heart diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Head and Neck Sarcomas: Demographic and Histological Characteristics in a Tertiary Hospital of a Developing Country

Abdullahi Mohammed, Kabir Abdullahi, Stanley Baba Amutta

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38952

Background: Head and neck sarcomas are rare connective tissue malignancies affecting all age groups and any of the anatomical sites of the head and neck region.

Aim: Is to describe the demographic, anatomic and histological characteristics of head and neck sarcomas.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with histologic diagnoses of head and neck sarcomas seen in a Nigerian tertiary hospital, from January 2010 to December 2015. The retrieved data were reviewed for age, sex, types and sites of tumour origin and analysed statistically using predictive analysis software version 18.

Results: We reviewed a total of 51 cases, and these represented 3.2% of a total of 1,574 cases of head and neck malignancies diagnosed during the study period. Males 27 (52.9%) and Females 24 (47.1%). The median ages at presentation for adults and children were 28 and 6.5 years respectively. Age ranged from 8 days to 65 years. The majority of the patients were in their first (31.4%) and third (27.5%) decades. The soft tissue sarcomas 38 (74.5%) accounted for the majority of primary head and neck sarcomas. Osteogenic Sarcoma 13(25.5%) was the only hard tissue sarcoma reported. Thirty-one (60.8%) cases recorded in adults; osteogenic sarcoma 11(35.5%) was the most common and in children 20 (39.2%), the majority were rhabdomyosarcoma 17 (85%), and the least commonly reported case was a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour 1(5%).

The most common sites of primary head and neck sarcomas among children were the oral cavity 5 (25%) followed by the mandible 4 (7.8%). In adults, maxilla and the neck 5 (16.1%) respectively were the most common site.

Conclusions: Head and neck sarcomas are uncommon tumours. The most common histological type for adults and children were embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma respectively. Though any part(s) of the head and neck region can be affected, in adults patients, parameningeal site are more frequently involved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contraceptive Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Ogbomoso Metropolis, Nigeria

O. R. Ilori, O. S. Ilori, P. O. Awodutire

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/37743

Background: Unplanned pregnancies are on the increase in Nigeria, and there is enough evidence that family planning can drastically reduce the incidence of unplanned/unwanted pregnancies which could invariably bring to the barest minimum the upsurge of maternal mortality and infant mortality rates worldwide, most especially in developing countries.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women in the reproductive age group (i.e., 15–49 years)  within Ogbomoso Metropolis.

Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Ogbomoso Metropolis using multi-stage sampling. The study subjects consisted of all married women in the age group of 15–49 years. Women who were divorced, widowed, single women, as well as those who refused to participate, were excluded from the study.

Results: It was observed that out of 400 respondents, 373 (93.2%) were aware a form of family planning or the other and source of information was mainly from health workers (93.8%). Three hundred and fifty (87.5%) approved the use of contraceptives by couples, 35 (8.8%) do not approve it and 15 (3.8%) were indifferent. Less than half 169 (42.2%) were currently using contraceptives out of which most of them were using IUCD 71(42.0%) followed by injectables 46 (27.2%). Test of dependency using Chi-Square revealed a significant association between the knowledge about contraceptives and religion, as well as with occupation of respondents.

Conclusion: Only two-fifths of respondents were currently on a family planning method, and the primary reason for non- usage was the fear of side effect. It is therefore recommended that family planning commodity researchers should work more in reducing the side effects associated with family planning usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacteria isolated from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Ile-Ife Metropolis

Josephine Osevwe, Olarinde Olaniran, Babatunde Odetoyin, Godwin Nwobu, Richard Agunlejika, Funmilola Omoya, Ayobami Awoyeni, Olufemi Oyetoke

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38548

Introduction: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are public health concerns in developing countries. These infections are usually treated with antibiotics, and in most cases, treatment is initiated before the final laboratory reports are available. Lately, empiric treatment has been complicated by the emergence of resistance and a definitive diagnosis and susceptibility testing would be required for effective management. This study focused on the causative agents of RTIs in Ile-Ife, and the susceptibility patterns of all the isolates.

Methods: Two hundred and thirteen samples of sputum, pleural aspirate and throat swab were collected aseptically from patients and cultured on the appropriate media. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique.

Results: In this study, the prevalence of respiratory tract infections was 38.5%. Male patients and those in the age group of 21-30 years were more vulnerable to respiratory tract infections (p<0.05). The highest number of pathogens (n=70; 84.4%) was obtained from sputum, while 12 (24.6%) were isolated from pleural aspirate and throat swab. The commonest bacterial sp isolated was Klebsiella sp (n=32; 39%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=16; 19.6%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n=11; 13.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=7; 8.5%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=6; 7.3%). Most of the isolates (>60%) were resistant to amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, cloxacillin and tetracycline, but far fewer to ofloxacin (<10%).

Conclusion: The level of antibiotic resistance observed in this study is a serious public health problem and hence, underscores the need for timely and proper diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and susceptibility testing.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Overview of Problem-based Learning and Its Perception among Students Taking Basic Science Curriculum in Medical and Health Sciences University

Anshoo Agarwal, S. Anil Mohan Rao

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38417

Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is tutoring that addresses all curricula types and enables the improvement of key proficiencies such as critical thinking, communication skills, interpersonal relations, and self-assessment. PBL is small group instructive mode based on constructivist beliefs and characterised by the use of a structured problem as the framework for students to acquire clinical, cognitive skills and attain information about the issue. Teaching is structured about judiciously created cases, using a progressive-disclosure layout, that aid as an impetus for small-group learning. In our University, we have integrated problem-based curriculum for health sciences students. Our study aims to analyse the student's perception about problem-based learning at Medical & health Sciences University in UAE and also to analyse student's satisfaction and a process of implementation of problem-based learning methodology in basic science curriculum.

Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional survey based study done in a Health Sciences University in UAE. In this prospective study University, students were given self-designed questionnaire which consisted of demographic details & closed-ended questions addressed to report the experience and attitudes of students towards PBL.

Results: 87% students agreed that the PBL sessions are more effective in achieving learning objectives. 43% Students strongly agreed that the PBL allows in-depth understanding of the topics. Only to 65% of the students the time allotted for each PBL session was enough. 41% decided that they could integrate their prior knowledge to solve the problem in problem-based learning   sessions. 37% of them strongly agreed that they are motivated when they study the issue getting from real life. 49% of them could integrate the different subjects to solve the problem.29% Stated that they work harder to prepare for discussion in problem-based learning sessions than others. 87% of them agreed that PBL provided opportunities for to them to contribute ideas. 91% stated that PBL gave them the opportunity to hearing different perspectives and learning from one another. 79% agreed that the resources provided by the library /internet allowed them to satisfy the course requirements. 91% of them stated that their facilitator provided them with a positive learning environment.