Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Isolates from In-Patients at the Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

J. Gana, I. G. Ameh, K. J. Awosan, S. B. Manga, S. B. Oyeleke, N. Danbaba

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38253

Aim: The study was conducted to identify and characterize antibiotic resistant bacteria isolates from in-patients at Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 245 patients with community-acquired infections, admitted into the various wards of the hospital over a period of 5 months. Blood, wound swab and urine samples were collected, transported and analyzed using standard procedures. Gram staining and biochemical characterization were conducted to identify bacteria isolates. Information on patients’ bio-data and results of microbiological analysis were entered into a proforma, and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 17 statistical package.

Results: Forty nine (20.0%) of the 245 samples collected showed growth and were confirmed; the bacteria species isolated include Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%), Escherichia coli (6.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.1%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (1.6%). There was no association (p > 0.05) between presence of positive samples and patients’ age, sex or place of admission (ward). The overall sensitivity ranged from 69.4% for Streptococcus pyogenes to 79.2% for Staphylococcus aureus. Whereas Streptococcus pyogenes showed absolute sensitivity (100%) to Ampicillin and Tetracycline as compared to the other antibiotics used, it was completely resistant (0%) to gentamycin.

Conclusion: This study showed substantial occurrence of antibiotic resistant pathogens among patients with community-acquired infections in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Formulation and/or implementation of the necessary policy on safe antibiotic use; and organization of periodic educational enlightenment programmes for health workers and members of the public on prevention of antibiotic resistance through rational drug prescription and use are urgently needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Schistosomia haematobium and Staphylococcus aureus among Pregnant Women in Akure

T. A. Olukitibi, F. C. Adetuyi, A. S. Faniomi, O. A. Okunade

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35365

Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic disease of man. Staphylococcus aureus has also been observed as one of the causal agents of Urinary Tracts Infectionsand can be regarded as threat. This study focuses on the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection and Staphylococcal infection and the relationship between these infections among pregnant women in semi – urban communities of Akure, Nigeria. A survey of Schistosomiasis and Staphylococcal infection were carried out among pregnant women between ages of 15-44 years that were selected randomly at Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Ondo State in February 2016. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data. One hundred urine samples were examined, comprising 30 from first trimester and 35 both for second and third trimester. The overall prevalence of S. heamatobium was 4% while S. aureus was 82%, the overall prevalence was much in age group 20-24 years for S. aureus and 40-44 years for S. heamatobium and first trimester had the highest prevalence for both cases. The highest prevalence was associated with water and toilet facility. There was association between S. aureus, S. heamatobium and toilet and water facilities. Microscopic examination of the urine sample also revealed yeast cells, RBC and crystals, which have health implications. This study revealed a relative declinein the prevalence of Schistosomiasis in the study area while Staphyloccocal infection had a substantial prevalence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Safety Practices Related to Exposure to Physical and Chemical Hazards among Welders in Sokoto, Nigeria

K. J. Awosan, M. A. Makusidi, M. T. O. Ibrahim, A. Suleiman, T. G. Magaji, F. G. Mbatifuh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/38572

Introduction: The workplace is an important part of man’s environment, and there is no occupation that is free of hazards. Due to the upsurge in construction activities (many of which involve welding) sequel to the increasing urbanization and industrialization across the world, exposure to occupational hazards has become an important public health problem globally. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and safety practices related to exposure to physical and chemical hazards among welders in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 280 welders selected by systematic sampling technique. Data were collected with a set of standardized, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire, and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Version 20 statistical computer software package.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 30.98±9.42 years, and all of them were males. Majority, 197 (70.4%) of the 280 respondents had good knowledge of the physical and chemical hazards of welding. Most of the respondents (66.4% to 95.7%) were aware of the various workplace accidents and injuries of welding. Almost all the respondents (99.3%) had good knowledge of prevention of welders’ workplace hazards, accidents and injuries. Although, most of the respondents reported observing the various preventive measures against welders’ workplace hazards, accidents and injuries, consistent use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was poor, and this was majorly attributed to non-availability. Almost all the respondents (99.3%) have experienced workplace accidents and injuries, with the most common injuries sustained being cut injuries to the fingers and other parts of the body (86.1%), burns from fire or explosions (86.1%), and eye injuries due to sparks (78.6%).

Conclusion: The low utilization of PPE and the correspondingly high prevalence of accidents and injuries despite good knowledge of welding hazards and their prevention among welders in Sokoto, Nigeria, underscore the need for government, employers and other stakeholders to promote ownership and consistent use of PPE, in addition to monitoring welders and their employers for compliance with workplace health and safety standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

ABO Blood Groups and Malaria Prevalence in a Referral Hospital in Nigeria

M. N. Wogu, F. O. Nduka, K. T. Wariso

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/37371

A cross-sectional randomized study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between malaria prevalence and ABO blood groups in a referral hospital in Rivers State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were collected from all consenting study participants, films (thick and thin) were made from each blood sample, stained with 10% Giemsa stains and viewed microscopically with oil immersion objective to detect Plasmodium species using standard parasitological techniques. Agglutination technique using monoclonal Antisera A, B and D was used to determine the ABO blood groups. Data generated were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and significance level was set at P<0.05. An overall malaria prevalence of 43.1% was observed among study participants. Blood groups A and O had higher malaria prevalence of 61.1% and 42.6% respectively while blood groups B and AB had lower prevalence of 28.0% and 0% respectively (P<0.05). Malaria parasite density levels >1000 parasites/µL in relation to ABO blood groups showed a higher prevalence of 46.7% and 22.7% in blood groups A and B respectively while lower prevalence of 0% and 15.7% occurred in blood groups AB and O respectively (P<0.05). The findings of this study showed that individuals with blood group O were susceptible to contracting uncomplicated malaria but had a higher resistance to developing severe malaria compared to non – O blood groups (A and B). More detailed molecular researches are needed to fully establish the relationship between malaria parasitaemia and ABO blood groups, therefore malaria interventions and control strategies should be directed equally among individuals irrespective of their blood groups.

Open Access Case Study

Fibrolipoma of Oral Cavity- A Case Study

BR. Sathvikalakshmi, CH. Uma Reddy, R. Kirthika, L. Chandrashekar, R. Sudarshan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36927

Lipomas are benign soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasms of the oral cavity. Among its histological variants, fibrolipoma is a rare entity and is comprised of neoplastic fat cells embedded in dense collagen. Although, fibrolipomas may occur at various sites in the oral cavity, its etiology is obscure. The importance of differentiating an intraoral fibrolipoma from a mucocele, fibroma and pleomorphic adenoma is discussed through a case study of fibrolipoma in the buccal sulcus with review of literature. Here we present a case study on fibrolipoma in the left buccal mucosa.