Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Low Infant Birth Weight in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

K. Opare-Asamoah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36250

Aim: This study was conducted to assess the determinants of low infant birth weight in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Postnatal and child welfare clinics of the Tamale Central, West and Seventh Day Adventist Hospitals from January to June 2016.

Methodology: Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and infants, maternal lifestyle activities, clinical variables and anthropometric measurements of 201 mothers who delivered singleton babies at the three-health facilities. These variables were assessed to determine their effect on birth weight outcome of infants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of infant birth weight.

Results: The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW), normal birth weight and high birth weight (HBW) among infants delivered by respondents was 11.9%, 77.6% and 10.5% respectively. Haemoglobin concentration (9.9 ± 1.3 g/dL: P<.001), underweight mothers (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.0-5.0), mothers with no education (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.6-9.7) and mothers with more than 4 children (aOR = 6.5, 95 % CI = 1.5-28.0) are significant determinants associated with low birth weight.

Conclusion: Early pregnancy haemoglobin concentration (<10 g/dL), not educated, multiparity (>4) and being underweight are significantly associated with low birth weight outcomes. Mothers with more than 4 children, with early pregnancy heamoglobin and underweight should be given special clinical attention to avert low birth weight outcomes. Furthermore, sociodemographic data should be evaluated so attention can be given to uneducated pregnant women in a language they can understand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Overcrowding in an Emergency Department of a Referral Centre in Nigeria: A Study of National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos

Ike, Edith Chinonyelum, Nwonu, Eunice Ifeyinwa, Balogun Mobolanle Rasheedat, Obidike, Obinna Reginald, Molobe, Ikenna Daniel

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/37303

Background: An emergency department (ED) is where acute cases report and require urgent and intensive care. The ED of National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos is constantly overcrowded and may be impacting the nursing care that is provided in the unit.

Objective: To identify triggers to ED overcrowding in the study hospital and determine influence of overcrowding in nursing care of patients.

Methods: In this cross- sectional study, all the thirty nurses working in ED participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was employed for qualitative data. The questionnaire was administered to thirty nurses and 100% return rate was achieved. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 and relative importance index (RII) and its ranking (R) was used to establish the relative importance of the various triggers identified as responsible for overcrowding.

Results: Result revealed severe cases managed in ED (76.7%), patients stay longer than expected in the ED (80.0%), lack of space (76.7%), lack of ED equipment e.g. stretchers (73.3%), insufficient beds in the ED (66.7%), heavy patient inflow and the hospital policy of not rejecting patients, and patients’ delay in accomplishing their laboratory investigations as triggers of ED overcrowding. The study participants identified increased nurse workload (RII=0.880; R=1), strain in nurse and patients’ relations relationship (RII=0.75= 2.0) and long patient wait (RII=0.747; R=3.0) as three most outstanding influence of overcrowding.

Conclusion: The obvious overcrowding in this ED is triggered by the chronic and non-emergency cases accessing the ED, as well as limited bed space which further drives overcrowding increasing nurse work load, frustration and lack of cooperation by the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Skills of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Some Professional and Student Teachers Compared

Adedamola Olutoyin Onyeaso, Onyedikachi Oluferanmi Onyeaso

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36913

Background/Aim of Study: Training of practising professional and student teachers in CPR is very central, if the idea of introducing CPR training in Nigerian school system and by extension possibly the number of  bystander CPR providers for OHCA in line with the international standard will ever be effective. The objective of this study was to compare the skills of CPR of some practising professional and undergraduate student teachers in Nigeria.

Study Design: Cohort experimental study

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt between September, 2016 and June, 2017.

Methodology: Two cohorts of some practising professional teachers and undergraduate students (each having 41 participants) were recruited into the study. The cohorts were differently exposed to identical scenarios of carrying out CPR skills on cardiac arrest victims simulated using manikins before CPR training and after. Their pre-training and post-training skills in CPR were assessed by a certified CPR instructor. The training was in line with the American Heart Association (AHA) conventional CPR teaching standard and the data collation was done using a modified AHA CPR Skills Evaluation Guide.

Results: Their pre-training CPR skills were significantly comparably poor (P >.05), but the undergraduate student teachers significantly had better post-training CPR skills than the practising professional teachers (P <.001).

Conclusion: Although the professional and student teachers had significantly poor CPR skills before training, their post-training skills in CPR were improved significantly and the student teachers significantly improved better in the post-training CPR skills than the practising professional teachers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulatory Roles of Clove and Fermented Ginger Supplements on Lipid Profile and Thyroid Functions in High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance in Rabbits

Abdulrazak, Abubakar, Tanko, Yusuf, Mohammed, Aliyu, Dikko, Abdulaziz Aliyu Umar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33166

Aims: To evaluate the effects of clove buds and fermented ginger rhizome supplements on Lipid profile and thyroid functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistance in rabbits.

Study Design: High fat diet was fed to rabbits for eleven weeks to ascertain diabetic animal model (DAM), thereafter, DAM were treated with supplements for six weeks.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna Nigeria. Between May, 2015 to October, 2016.

Methodology: Thirty (30) male rabbits (5-8 weeks of age) divided into six groups of (n=5) were used, Group I (Normal control) was treated with standard animal feed (SAF) throughout the experimental period, Group II-VI were treated with high fat diet (SAF = 69% + Cholesterol = 1% + Ground nut meal = 20% + ground nut oil = 10%) for 11 weeks to induced hyperglycemia and ascertain DAM for the study. Thereafter, DAM groups (Group II-VI) were treated for six weeks of experimental protocol; Group II was treated with SAF only, Group III = DAM treated on SAF + cholestran (0.26 g/kg), Group IV = DAM treated on SAF + clove buds (12.5%) supplements, Group V = DAM treated on SAF + fermented ginger (12.5%) supplements, and Group VI = DAM treated on SAF + clove buds (12.5%) + fermented ginger (12.5%). After treatment, animals were sacrifice and serum from blood samples was used for laboratory assessments of lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) using standard procedures, data obtained were statistically analyzed.

Results: A significantly (P=0.05) decrease in TC level in DAM group treated on fermented ginger (12.5%) supplement when compared to DAM treated on SAF. T3 and T4 levels significantly decrease in all supplement treated groups compared to DAM treated on SAF group.

Conclusion: Clove (12.5%), fermented ginger (12.5%) and clove (12.5%) + fermented ginger (12.5%) supplements reveal a pronounced decreasing effects on higher lipid indices and thyroid hormones levels in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rabbits. Hence, further work to validate their ameliorative effects on similar conditions for reliability and medicinal use is needed.

Open Access Study Protocol

The Relationship between Upper Extremity Motor Function and Oral Hygiene among Stroke Survivors: Study Protocol for a Mixed-Method Design

Rabiu Ibrahim, Isa U. Lawal, Khabiso J. Ramphoma

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/37029

Background: Stroke is emerging as a leading cause of preventable death and disability in adults in many developing countries. One important aspect of self-care is the oral health care. Individuals who have suffered stroke may have difficulty to independently complete the needed Oral Health Care tasks and this can lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. In addition to that, the saliva may also become populated by high numbers of bacteria, and when these are aspirated, pneumonia or systemic infection can result.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between upper extremity motor function and the state of oral hygiene in stroke survivors.

Methods: A two phase explanatory sequential mixed-method design is proposed to examine the relationship between upper extremity motor function and oral hygiene of stroke survivors. The first phase consists of the collection and analysis of quantitative data in order to address the study’s research questions. The second involves the collection and analysis of qualitative data through focus group discussions with some stroke survivors and an in-depth interview of physiotherapists and dentists to understand the views of these professionals on the problem.

Results: Research setting selection and preparation, instruments selection and research assistants training has been completed. Data collection is in progress.

Conclusion: This description of the study methods will be useful for clinicians and researchers in planning and implementing studies of this kind.