Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Non-communicable Diseases in Public Places in Upper Egypt

Mohamed Mashahit, Hoda Hussein, Eman Hanafy

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36090

Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are one of the major health and development challenges of the 21st century. They cause human suffering and inflict harm on the socioeconomic fabric of countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

Aim: The study aims to screen for common NCDs in Egypt which are important for both primary and secondary health care services to provide more directed preventive and curative health programs.

Methods: A simple random sampling method was used to select 1816 participants screened for some common NCDs during world’s diabetes day activities in collaboration with Upper Egypt Diabetes Association. The screening included history taking, BMI, blood pressure measurement, and blood sugar estimation.

Results: Obesity (BMI ≥30) was detected in 51.8%, diabetes mellitus in 18.2%, hypertension in 25.1%, coronary heart disease in 3.7%, chronic lung disease in 7.4% and cancer history in 1%. 

Conclusion: In comparison with previous Egyptian and WHO reports, our study observed higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary heart disease among the study participants, thus providing a rational basis for designing and implementing more directed healthcare programs at primary and secondary health care levels. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Predicting the Utilization of Breast Cancer Screening Services among Women Working in a Private University in Ogun State, Nigeria

Ojewole, Foluso, Muoneke, Noela

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/37013

Aims: To examine the factors predicting the utilization of breast cancer screening services among women working in a private university in Ogun State.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: A private University in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data collected between June and September 2016.

Methodology: One Hundred and Eighty-seven (187) participants were randomly selected using multi-stage and proportional sampling techniques. Participant completed a questionnaire that assessed the predicting factors and screening practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and presented as frequencies and percentages. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05.

Results: Majority (54.5%) of the respondents had moderate knowledge of breast cancer as a deadly disease that needs to be prevented. Majority (65.8%) of the respondents also failed to practice breast self-examination. Partners acceptance of breast cancer screening services and knowledge of breast cancer screening were predictors ((F (1, 187) = 9.060; P = 0.00; F (2, 187) = 10.989; P = .013) of breast cancer screening services utilization while knowledge of breast cancer symptoms and risks was not. Fear of cancer and death is not a predictor of the utilization of breast cancer screening with F (1,187) =3.384; P=0.00.

Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that there is a need for continuous public awareness for breast cancer screening services. Through this, women would develop confidence in performing the procedure correctly. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Fayoum (Egypt)

Mohamed Masahhit, Hoda A. Husain, Reham Samir

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36088

Background: People with type 2 Diabetes (type II DM) have an elevated risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) for which Dyslipidemia is the major contributor. Diabetic patients have characteristic pattern of dyslipidemia with Decreased level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides (TG) level, high serum VLDL-triglycerides and a preponderance of small, dense LDL.

This Study Aimed: To study the pattern of dyslipidemia in Egyptian type II diabetic patients.

Subject and Method: The study included 500 subjects: Four hundred type -2 diabetic  patients   of  both  sexes   aged  20 - 65  years  from different rural and urban areas of  Fayoum governorate with no past or current history of lipid lowering agents and one hundred age & sex matched individuals as a control group. A Full medical history including the patient`s age, sex, duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes, drugs used in treatment of diabetes and history of CVD.

An overnight   fasting blood sample was obtained for (Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TGs), HbA1c, SGPT, SGOT, Creatinine and Urea, CBC.

The Results: showed that 48.3% of the diabetics had hypercholesterolemia (TC  ≥ 200  mg/dL),  62.5% had hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 15 0 mg/dL) 61.8% had serum LDL-C ≥ 100  mg/dL and 12.5% of diabetics had a an (HDL-C < 40 mg/dL.

Conclusion: This study concluded that serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C are elevated, HDL levels are lowered in Egyptian diabetics compared to non-diabetics. So, we can recommend that measurement of serum lipid profile should be included in the management plan of diabetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: Effect of Supplementation with the Antioxidant Dimethyl Sulfoxide

F. U. Bunza, M. K. Dallatu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36038

Background: Antioxidants are substances that protect the cell damage caused by free radicals. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has radical-scavenging activity thus acting as antioxidant. In this study, we evaluated haematological changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated or not with DMSO.

Materials and Methods: 24 adult wistar albino rats, aged 9-11 weeks, were divided into three groups of eight rats each: control, diabetics and diabetics supplemented with DMSO (0.5 ml/kgbw/day for two weeks). Diabetic groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly dissolved alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kgbw) in normal saline. 5% glucose dissolved in clean water and same volume of normal saline served as drinking water for diabetic rats and controls, respectively. Hematological parameters (RBC, HCT, HGB, WBC, LYM, GRA, MCH, MCHC, MCV and PLT) were determined by automated hematology analyzer. 

Results: The mean values of RBC, HCT, HBG, GRA and PLT (5.58±0.21, 34.84±1.96, 10.35±0.69, 8.21±1.20 and 608.89±61.0, respectively) of the diabetic DMSO-supplemented rats were significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to the diabetic unsupplemented rats (14.16±7.18, 52.18±1.17, 15.21±0.39, 11.58±2.03 and 626.88±56.0 respectively). Moreover, the mean value of PLT (76.20±1.10) in DMSO-supplemented rats was significantly higher (P= 0.01) than that of the diabetic unsupplemented animals (56.21±1.9). Statistically significant difference was also observed (P<0.05) in blood glucose of diabetic DMSO-supplemented rats (15.38±1.56 and 10.30±2.13 mmol/L after, respectively, 72 hours and 2 weeks of diabetes induction) compared to diabetic unsupplemented rats (24.75±3.06 and 22.93±2.82 mmol/L after, respectively, 72 hours and 2 weeks of diabetes induction).

Conclusion: Treatment with DMSO tends to reverse all the aforementioned hematologic anomalies to near control values in diabetic rats. Thus, diabetes mellitus predisposes to haematological abnormalities that may be prevented or reversed by treatment with the antioxidant compound DMSO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Risk Factors among Diabetic Patients Visiting Diabetic Research Clinic at Nishtar Hospital Multan-Pakistan

Kiran Areej, Muhammad Umair Zafar, Komal Saleem, Muhammad Adeel Zafar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35857

Background: Diabetes is the most common non-communicable disease. Currently Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects 240 million people worldwide. Pakistan belongs to high prevalence area having 6.9 million diabetics. Diabetes mellitus is 4th leading cause of death in most developed countries with Pakistan ranking 7th position in the list. Factors responsible for diabetes are of two types: modifiable and non-modifiable. Modifiable risk factors include smoking, eating habits and lifestyle and Non-modifiable risk factors include family history, obesity and stressful life.

Objective: To determine frequency of risk factors among diabetic patients visiting diabetic Research Clinic Nishtar Hospital Multan. To suggest the ways how to reduce diabetic disease.

Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the outdoor patients setting of Diabetic Research Clinic at Nishtar Hospital Multan from 22-5-2016 to 27-7-2016. 142 patients of diabetes mellitus were selected through convenient sampling technique. The data was collected  through a structured  questionnaire. Data was analysed through Microsoft Excel, using version 2016 for different variables. The data was calculated through frequencies and percentages.

Results: Out of 142 patients 71(50%) were males and 71 (50%) were females, 62(43%) patients were overweight, 98 (69%) patients had diabetes for more than two years, 65(45%) patients were suffering from Hypertension before Diabetes mellitus. There was no history of smoking among 102 (71%) patients while 73(51%) patients had stressful life.

Conclusions: In our study we found that hypertension, stressful life, eating habits and family history are the most common risk factors of diabetes mellitus.