Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Salivary Flow Rate, Salivary pH and Oral Candidiasis among Tobacco Chewers, Smokers and Healthy Controls- A Cross Sectional Study

Preetika Parmar, G. Radha, R. Rekha, S. K. Pallavi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36522

Background: Tobacco chewing and smoking is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries. It decreases the sensitivity of taste receptors which in turn leads to altered taste receptors response and changes in salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. It either alone or in combination with systemic local factors, is associated with increased oral candidal colonization.

Objectives: To assess SFR, salivary pH and oral candidiasis among tobacco chewers, smokers and healthy controls in patients visiting V S Dental College & Hospital Bangalore.

Methods: A total of 90 male subjects aged 20-40years were divided equally into tobacco smokers (group A), chewers (group B), and controls (group C). Saliva of each subject was collected and SFR was expressed in mL/min. Salivary pH was determined using pH strips. Smear was taken from subjects with oral candidiasis and send for microbiological examination. ANOVA, and chi square test was used for stastistical analysis.

Results: The mean (±SD) SFR was 0.66 ml/min (±0.16) in group A, 0.59 ml/min (± 0.34) in group   B and 0.94 ml/min (± 0.42) in group C, on comparison a non significant difference was found (P =0.256). The mean (±SD) salivary pH of saliva was 6.7 (±0.38) in group A, 6.3 (±0.63) in group B and 7.16 (±0.30) in group C, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.001). There was no significant association between tobacco habits and oral candidiasis (p value = 0.129).

Conclusions: Tobacco use either smoking or chewing form reduces the salivary flow rate and pH, and there was no significant association between oral candidiasis and tobacco habits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Health Workers’ Level of Motivation in a Rural Hospital in Ghana

James Avoka Asamani, Abdul-Majeed Ahmed, Hamza Ismaila, Francis Abande Akugri, Fidelis Atibila, Margaret Chebere

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36723

This study examined the level of motivation of health workers in a rural hospital in Ghana and the factors affecting it. A cross sectional survey was employed to study one hundred (100) health professionals who consented to participate in the study. The results show that on a 10-point scale where 1 represents the least level of motivation and 10 being the highest level of motivation, the average level of motivation among the multidisciplinary health team was 4.88 (48.8%) (standard deviation = 0.22). Many factors influenced health workers’ level of motivation including supervision and management style (B = 0.869, P < 0.001); pay increase/incentives (B = 0.453, P < 0.001); opportunities for personal and professional growth (B = 0.577, P < 0.001) and challenging duties (B = 0.491, P = 0.003). Finally, the study found that professionals in the multidisciplinary health team preferred equality (55.8%) and performance-based equity (61.1%) approaches to motivating staff. On the other hand, the health workers rejected the use of academic qualifications (55.8%) or seniority (70.5%) as the basis for offering motivational incentives. It is recommended that hospital managers and policy makers pay particular attention to the factors that workers deemed important in motivating them. Furthermore, approaches to motivation in the health sector should be revisited by policy makers to address the concerns of equity and equality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Its Associated Factors among Secondary School Students after Fifteen Months of Earthquake in Bhaktapur District, Nepal

Tek Bahadur Thapa, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader, Md. Akhter Hossain, Ariful Bari Chowdhury, Mohammad Hayatun Nabi, Sanjana Zaman, G. U. Ahsan

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36819

Background: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is a mental health problem that some people develop after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, like combat, natural disaster, accident, or sexual assault. Though several recent studies have focused on PTSD, its status and associated factors among secondary school students followed by huge natural disasters is not available. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing those factors among secondary school students after fifteen months of a huge earthquake.

Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among secondary school students. A total of 289 students were purposively selected from local government school which is located among districts most by affected earthquakes. Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic and earthquake exposure information. PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to measure PTSD and its severity.

Results: Study found that 56% students have been suffered from PTSD after the earthquake. Among the students who have diagnosed as PTSD positive, most of them (71%) were mildly affected, 26% were moderately affected and only 3% were severely affected. This study also found significant association of PTSD with parent’s education level, the parent’s occupation, amount of property loss, monthly family income and status of health services received.

Conclusion: Our study found those who have lost their house or property, less educated, farmer in occupation, lost their family members during earthquake were more vulnerable of suffering from PTSD after earthquake. Effective interventions such as educational, behavioral and psychological counseling, extra-curricular activities with awareness program may reduce the development of PTSD after disaster among school students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cognitive Recovery Outcome in a 12 Month Quasi-experimental Study Involving Sub-acute Stroke Survivors in Selected Hospitals in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria

U. P. Okonkwo, G. C. Okoye, A. O. Ezeukwu, M. J. Nwankwo, V. A. Egwuonwu, O. P. Ibikunle, C. O. Azubike, E. E. Okoye

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36206

Background: Studies estimate that up to 85 percent of people who suffer a stroke will have cognitive impairments, including deficits in executive function, attention and working memory. New evidence indicates that exercise exerts its effects on cognition by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, combining Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) and Task-specific Balance Training (TSBT) to facilitate global cognitive recovery and maintenance on cognitive impaired and non-cognitive impaired sub-acute ischemic stroke subtype with first ever cerebral ischemia was the focus of study.

Methods: The study was a 12-month quasi experimental study of cognitive recovery outcome following PNF and TSBT intervention involving 143 stroke survivors in selected hospitals in Nnewi, Nigeria. The ischemic stroke subtypes with first ever cerebral ischemia were recruited using convenience sampling technique after a neuropsychiatric test done under the supervision of a neurologist. About 100 participants that completed the study were allotted into a cognitive impaired group (Cog.) mean age 55.36±10.2 and non-cognitive impaired group (Non-cog.) mean age 50.20± 13. The PNF and TSBT were applied three times a week, 30mins per session, for 12 months. Four research assistants were trained to assist in each treatment session. The outcome measure applied was mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for determining the neuropsychiatric status of participants at baseline and after exercise intervention at 4th month, 8th month and 12th month.

Results: The mean MMSE scores was significantly greater than the baseline values for both Cog.: (F (2.232, 109.366) = 68.671, p < 0.001 with large partial eta squared = .584 and Non. Cog.: (F (2.478, 121.409) = 5.787, p < 0.001 with large partial eta squared = .541

Conclusion: There was improvement in global cognitive status of the sub-acute stroke survivors after 12 months PNF and TSBT exercise adapted in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Potentials of Yoyo Bitters and Aqueous Leaf Extract of Moringa oleifera in Arsenite Induced Inflammatory Dysfunctions in Male Wistar Rats

Oyewo Emmanuel Bukoye, Afolabi Oluwasegun Kayode, Oyewo Blessing Tahre, Akanji Musbau Adewumi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33893

Background: The use of alternative therapy to combat heavy metal intoxications has emerged recently, due to scientific evidences indicating superior efficacy in the use of botanicals that possess high antioxidative capabilities with or without dimercaprol or succimer in treating heavy metal intoxication.

Methods: To investigate the amelioration potentials of yoyo bitters and Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in arsenite induced health perturbations, 100 ppm of arsenite, M. oleifera and yoyo bitters at respective doses of 250 mg/kg and 0.308 ml/kg body weight were administered to rats. Parameters such as reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde, protein thiol, nitric oxide, s-glutathionylated protein, prealbumin, cortisol, carbon clearance, zinc sulphate turbidity, neutrophil adhesion, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and leukocyte analyses were determined.

Results: Administrations of arsenite and herbal supplements reduced the body weights in the rats (p<0.05), altered the oxidant-antioxidant activities by enhanced oxidative activities (p<0.05), and triggered chronic inflammatory responses that were ameliorated by the administration of yoyo bitters (0.308 ml/kg body weight) and Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg body weight) especially when combined (p<0.05). Paradoxically, leukocyte counts were increased (p<0.05) in the herbal supplement treated rats compared to the untreated arsenite administered rats, but the phagocytic capabilities were all reduced (p<0.05). The herbal supplement did not prevent the assimilation of arsenic in the organs, but rather reduced the assimilations.

Conclusion: Our study indicated that yoyo bitters and Moringa oleifera singly or combined can ameliorate some health perturbations precipitated through arsenite intoxication, but the avoidance of the repeated exposures to arsenic contaminated environment and food substances is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis among Patients with Vulvovaginitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

K. T. Wariso, J. A. Igunma, I. L. Oboro, F. A. Olonipili, N. Robinson

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36736

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the three common causes of vulvovaginitis in women of child bearing age, usually resulting from alteration the normal vaginal microbiota and PH. Common clinical presentation includes abnormal vaginal discharge, pruritus, dysuria and dyspareunia.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among symptomatic women of child bearing age that attended various outpatient clinics in the university of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital.

Methods: Two hundred (200) women with vulvovaginitis who attended various clinics in the hospital were recruited for a cross sectional study using the Nugent scoring system for bacterial vaginosis after obtaining their consents. Questionnaires were used to obtain their demographic information and common presenting symptoms.

Results: One hundred and two (102) of the patients had bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 51%. The commonest affected age group is between 26-30 years. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge (50%). Majority of the patients were undergraduates and so had secondary education.

Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of vulvovaginitis especially among the sexually active age groups and such should be considered top among other causes of similar sign and symptoms especially in cases of syndromic management.