Open Access Original Research Article

Food Hygiene Knowledge, Practice and Safety Training Intervention among Food Handlers in Abakaliki, Nigeria

B. I. Ituma, C. O. Akpa, O. Iyare

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36439

Background: Food hygiene and safety are significant public health issues in both developed and developing nations. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of training on knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in restaurants in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Methodology: This study was quasi-experimental in design. The intervention and control groups were selected by simple random sampling method. A total of 170 food handlers were recruited into this study. The study phases were a baseline survey in both groups, a training programme in the intervention group and post-intervention survey in both groups. Statistical package for social sciences (IBM-SPSS) version 20 was used for data analysis.

Results: After the intervention, the proportion of respondents who had very good knowledge of food hygiene and safety increased significantly by 46.9% in the intervention group (p<0.01). A slight increase (1.1%) was observed in the control group but this was not significant (p = 0.40). The proportion of food handlers in the intervention group who had very good practice of food hygiene and safety also increased significantly by 28.4% (p<0.01). However, in the control group, there was no increase in the proportion of food handlers who had very good practice.

Conclusion: Training significantly increased the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers. Periodic training should be provided for the food handlers. Further research is recommended to assess sustained changes in practice of food hygiene and safety over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiety and Visual Field Assessment Reliability in Glaucoma Patients

Kok-Leong Tan, Lai-Chan Fhun, Maizan Yaakub, Mei-Fong Chong, Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36396

Background: Visual field assessment is very important for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. Anxiety may affect the quality of a patient’s performance when undergoing these assessment tests and influence the reliability of visual field measurement.

Methods: A total of 155 primary and secondary glaucoma patients were recruited. Face-to-face interviews using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire were conducted prior to Humphrey visual field analysis (HFA) assessment testing. The reliability indices of fixation loss, false positive error, and false negative error were used to determine the accuracy of the HFA measurement.

Results: Based on the BAI, 122 patients were classified with minimal anxiety, 21 with mild anxiety, and 12 patients had moderate to severe anxiety. There was no correlation between BAI score and the reliability indices of the HFA. An increase in the number of previously conducted HFA tests reduced fixation loss by 1.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) [-2.394, -0.110], P = .032). There was a negative linear relationship between age and false positive error. For every 1 year increase in age, there was a 0.2% reduction in false positive error (95% CI [-0.376, -0.059], P = .008). Higher education level reduced the false negative errors by 3.5% (95% CI [-6.640, -0.279], P = .028).

Conclusions: Minimal anxiety may not affect the reliability indices of HFA. Age, education level, and number of previous visual field tests are the major factors affecting the reliability of visual field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Duration of Urethral Catheterization for Caesarean Delivery

Oriji Vaduneme Kingsley, Nyeche Solomon

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34416

Aims: To compare the effect of spontaneous voiding of urine to the different durations of the urethral catheter following elective caesarean section.

Study Design: Cross-sectional. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and department of microbiology, university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt between January and December 2014.

Methodology: We studied 160 booked parturient who had elective caesarean section. All the participants were randomly selected into three study groups and a control group. Each group consisted of 40 patients. The patients in control group voided spontaneously before and after surgery and did not have urethral catheterization. The study groups had urethral catheterization prior to surgery and were randomized into three groups of 40 patients depending on when their urethral catheters were removed postoperatively. All patients had mid-stream sample of urine collected a week prior to surgery and 72 hours after surgery for bacterial culture.

Results: The overall incidence of urinary tract infection following caesarean section in this study was 26.9%. There was a significantly lower incidence of urinary tract infection (3.1%) for group B women (with immediate catheter removal after caesarean section) when compared to the next group with the least incidence of urinary tract infection post operatively (P=. 02). Escherichia Coli was the commonest organism causing the urinary tract infection post operatively. The overall incidence of acute urinary retention was 13.8%. The need for catheterization after caesarean section (9.4%) was highest among women in group-A (spontaneous voiding before and after surgery).

Conclusion: Immediate postoperative removal of a urethral catheter after elective caesarean section was associated with a lower incidence of urinary tract infection. Spontaneous voiding without catheterization increases the risk of postoperative acute urinary retention and does not eliminate the risk of urinary tract infection following caesarean section.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Sokoto, Nigeria

E. U. Yunusa, K. J. Awosan, K. Tunau, R. Mainasara, A. M. Dangusau, M. Garba

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36705

Introduction: Maternal mortality is a global public health challenge; developing regions account for approximately 99% (302,000) of the global maternal deaths in 2015, and sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for roughly 66% (201,000), followed by South Asia (66,000). Birth preparedness has been identified as an effective intervention for reversing the prevailing trend. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 pregnant women (selected by systematic sampling technique) attending antenatal care (ANC) clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Data were collected with a set of pretested interviewer- administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 27.6 ± 5.1 years. Majority, 364 (89.2%) of the 408 respondents had good knowledge of BP/CR, but the proportion of respondents with good knowledge of BP/CR was significantly higher among the urban residents (91.2%) as compared to the rural residents (76.4%), c2 = 10.917, p = 0.001. Most of the respondents perceived the need for a pregnant woman and her family to observe the various BP/CR practices. Most of the respondents 375 (92.0%) had good practice of BP/CR, as they observed the various BP/CR practices such as, choice of place of delivery 339 (83.1%), making arrangement for transportation for ANC visits and delivery 329 (80.6%), and saving money for emergencies 330 (80.9%). The proportion of respondents with good practice of BP/CR was also significantly higher among the urban residents (94.1%) as compared to the rural residents (78.2%), c2 = 16.120, p < 0.001.

Conclusion: This study showed good knowledge, perception of need, and good practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the respondents, but significant disparities exist between the rural and urban residents. Governments should make concerted efforts to bridge the gap in the knowledge and practice of BP/CR between the rural and urban residents by addressing the prevalent inequalities in access to information and healthcare services between the rural and urban populations of their countries.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Blood Pressure and Complete Blood Count in Hemodialysis Patients

Mohammad Mazani, Hassan Argani, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Shokofeh Banaei, Babak Kazemi Arbat, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35265

Objectives: Zinc is an important trace element in human nutrition and its deficiency is a worldwide problem. Zinc deficiency incidence is predominantly high in many diseases such as ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) patients undertaking hemodialysis (HD). Beside, hypertension and cardiac output, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and complete blood count (CBC) in HD patients.

Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, Sixty-five HD patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in group I and group II received placebo and Zn supplementation (100 mg/day) respectively for two months. After withdrawing for the duration of the next two months, the study was continued as a crossover design for another two months (group I and II received zinc supplementation and placebo, respectively). Systolic and diastolic BP, cardiac ejection fraction (EF), and CBC were measured at the 0th, 60th, 120th, and 180th days. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software.

Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the mean red blood cell (RBC), Hematocrit (Hct), whereas a significant decrease was seen in systolic and diastolic BP. Changes observed in the placebo group were not significant.

Conclusion: Zinc supplementation for two months improved the systolic and diastolic BP, RBC, and Hct in HD patients.