Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria among Pregnant Women and Children Under Five Years in Abi Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

Simon Alain Inah, Regina Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Joseph Anuqua Inah, Jimmy Ebi Eko

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35911

This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women and children less than five years in Abi Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used for the study. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 59 pregnant women and 166 children (0-59 months) who presented in five selected Primary Health Centres between September 2016 to October, 2016. Blood samples were obtained from the respondent’s left 4th finger with the aid of a sterile lancet and the Rapid Diagnostic Test cassette was used to examine for the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of each respondent. Data generated were presented in frequencies and tables and Chi-square was used to test for association between categorical variables at 0.05 alpha level. The result obtained showed that of the 59 pregnant women who were tested for malaria parasite, 24 (40.7%) were positive for malaria parasite while 35 (59.3%) tested negative. Malaria was found to be higher among pregnant women between the age bracket of 22-26 years 10 (16.9%), women in their primigravida 13 (22.0%) and among women in their second trimester 9 (15.3%). Out of 166 children that were tested for malaria, 110 (66.3%) had malaria parasite in their blood while 56 (33.7%) tested negative. Malaria infection was higher among children who were between 0-12 months and among males than their female counterparts. Gestational age was significantly associated with the presence of malaria parasite (ᵡ2= 9.273; p=0.000). Hence, to curb malaria, the campaigns on malaria control and prevention should be re-designed in content and intensified in rural areas where the transmission rate is high. Regular screening and testing for malaria parasite should be institutionalized in all antenatal and postnatal outlets for prompt detection and management of malaria cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Egypt; A Retrospective Survey

Mohamed Mashahit, Eman Ezzat, Eman Hanafy

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36089

Background: Non communicable diseases (NCDs) have been a difficult group to define. However, four common behavioral risk factors (tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet, and lack of physical activity) are associated with four disease clusters (cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic pulmonary diseases, and diabetes) that account for about 80% of deaths from non communicable diseases. There is progressive increase in number of patients developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), worldwide. Egypt is present in top ten countries for number of adults with diabetes in the 8th place. We aimed in this work to study the prevalence of non communicable diseases among T2DM patients. 

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved data of 2468 T2DM patients collected from three Egyptian Governess; Cairo, Giza and Fayoum, for two years duration. These data included patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, education level, duration of DM, degree of diabetes control (assessed by HbA1c), presence or absence of smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetic complications, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lung diseases, chronic liver diseases, thyroid diseases and malignancy.

Results: Of the studied group we found that 797 patients (32.3%) had well controlled DM, 1999 (81%) with BMI ≥ 25, 1333 (54%) were hypertensive, 1876 (76%) had diabetes complications, 31% (765) of patients developed cardiovascular diseases 568 (23%) had chronic pulmonary diseases, 1530 (62%) had chronic liver diseases, 444 patients (18%) had thyroid diseases and 34 cases (1.33%) had malignancy.

Conclusion: There is high prevalence of non communicable diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Egypt, which mandates more organized efforts to face them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Protamine Genes (PRM1, PRM2) Polymorphism and Its Impact on Sperm Toroid Integrity in Males from Ahmedabad (India)

Highland Hyacinth, Rajput Nidhi, Sharma Rishika, Patel Kamini

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35811

Aim: Although infertility rates have been escalating in the past few years, there are very few studies directed towards its investigation, especially for males in the region of Ahmedabad, India. Hence the present study was aimed at identifying polymorphisms in the protamine genes (PRM1, PRM2) and their possible impact on sperm chromatin, in order to determine molecular changes which could impede sperm fertilizing ability.

Methodology: Infertile patients (Group II; n=23) with history of failure of in-vivo and in-vitro fertilization were included in the study. Normal, fertile age-matched men were selected as controls (Group I; n=25). Sperm Toroid Integrity (STI) assays was used to analyze Protamine-DNA binding efficiency. Sequencing was carried out for the protamine genes "PRM1 and PRM2" to screen for relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could alter the protein structure and its function of compact DNA binding, possibly impairing sperm fertilizing potential.

Results: A significantly higher percentage of protamine-DNA dissociation and partial toroid disruption was observed in the infertile cases. However, sequencing yielded only a single distinct SNP at nucleotide 239 (rs737008) in PRM1 gene.

Conclusion: The study revealed therefore that although the sequence of PRM genes and the resultant protamine proteins may not be altered, a loose protamine-DNA association and a disturbed toroid assemblage could render the DNA vulnerable to external pressures, leading to poor sperm function.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Nursing and Non-nursing Supervisory Managers’ Competence at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in North Central Nigeria

M. Dankyau, M. Z. Goni, E. I. Ibbi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36023

Aims: Supervisory managers are key to ensuring that hospitals are effective, and they also contribute to employee satisfaction in the workplace. There is inadequate knowledge regarding their competences, skills and skill gaps. The study aimed to determine supervisory managers’ self-assessed managerial competence, and compare nursing and non-nursing managers.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey of all consenting supervisory managers.

Place and Duration of Study: Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, February to March 2016.

Methodology: A two-part, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, work context and supervisor management competence. Data was entered to a data entry form in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21).

Results: A total of 48 managers completed the study giving a study response rate of 85.7%. Most of the participants were female (70.8%), with a mean age of 46.7±8.67 (Nurses 53.1±4.26 vs Non-nurses 43.1±8.49, P<.001) and mostly from the Health Service Provider cadre (64.6%). They had a mean duration of service of 19.9±10.3 years (Nurses 28.1±4.71 vs Non-nurses 15.4±9.72, P<.001). Median duration of management experience was 4 years and range of 1-26 years. Overall, 52.1% of the managers assessed themselves as competent (Nurses 58.8% vs Non-nurses 48.4%, P=.509).

“Gaining acceptance as Supervisor” and “Counselling a trouble employee” were the domains with the highest proportion (81.25%) of managers self-assessing as competent. “Dealing with performance problems” was the domain that the least proportion of managers (41.7%) felt competent. There were no statistically significant differences in competences of Nurse and Non-Nurse managers. Age, gender, occupation, education, years of service and years in management were not significant predictors of overall management competence.

Conclusion: Just over half of the managers were competent overall. There were significant gaps in managers competence in the performance related areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crude Ethanol Leaf-extract of Murraya koenigii on Anxiety in Mice

S. A. Bisong, U. E. Okon, E. A. Egbung, F. E. Abuo, O. A. Sanya

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/36294

Herbs are used the world over for culinary purposes and treating a host of ailments including mental disorders. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing the effects of curry plant (Murraya koenigii), commonly used as spice, on anxiety in mice. Twenty CD1 mice (body weight 21.5 g -30 g) were randomly assigned to two (2) groups of ten mice each. Mice received vehicle (distilled water- control) and ethanol leaf-extract of M. koenigii extract (80 mg/kg body weight) orally for 7 days before behavioural tests were done. Anxiety related behaviour were assesd using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light/dark (LD) box. M. koenigii extract increased the duration the mice spent in the open arms of EPM compared to the control (p<0.01) while also decreasing the time the mice spent in the close arms compared to control (p<0.01). The frequency of stretch attend postures of M. koenigii-treated mice were significantly (p<0.05) lower both in the EPM and LD box compared to control. These results indicate that M. koenigii extract decreased anxiety in the mice.