Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Faecal Occult Blood in Primary School Children in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

O. R. Ezeigbo, I. Nwachukwu, G. C. Ezeagwula, I. C. Ezeigbo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33127

Faecal occult blood is a laboratory test which looks for the presence of microscopic blood in faeces possibly as a result of gastrointestinal bleeding which may be an indication of a disease. Several large prospective randomized controlled studies have shown that faecal occult blood test (FOBT) plays an important role as a secondary preventive measure against certain diseases like gastric or duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, parasitic and bacterial infections etc. Occult bleeding itself is not a disease but might be a symptom of various disease conditions. It can be performed on mailed specimens without a health center visit. A study on the prevalence of faecal occult blood among primary school children aged 7-15 years was investigated in Aba South Local Government Area (LGA) of Abia State, Nigeria between July and December, 2016. Faecal samples were collected from three (3) major primary schools in the Local Government Area and analyzed for faecal occult blood using iFOBT (One Step FOB Rapid Screen Test by CIC Pharm., UK). This test has advantages of greater clinical and analytical sensitivity, collection of a single sample, simple and hygienic sampling devices, higher specificity for lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding, no dietary restriction and results in improved clinical performance and higher participation rates in screenings. Out of 400 samples collected, consisting of 232 (58.0%) males and 168 (42.0%) females, 58 (14.5%) were positive for faecal occult blood, which is an indication of either gastric, ulcerative colitis, parasitic or bacterial infections. The males (16.8%) were affected more than the female (11.3%) while ages 7-9 years were most affected. The study also showed that children whose parents are traders had the highest prevalence of 27.5% compared to the children whose parents are civil servants (13.3%). Based on schools, Etche Road Primary School had the highest prevalence (19.5%) while the least was Constitution Primary School (11.2%). Statistical analysis had shown that age group, occupation of parents and the location of school have significant effect on prevalence of faecal occult blood. Early screening of occult blood is recommended in order to detect any possible trace of hidden blood in the stool samples of school children which could be as a result of parasitic or bacterial infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Three Triterpenoid Acids in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

Shih-Ming Tsao, Mei-Chin Yin, Zhi-Hong Wang

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/35271

Protective effects of three triterpenoid acids, asiatic acid (AA), glycyrrhizic acid (GA) or oleanolic acid (OA), for BEAS-2B cells, human bronchial epithelial cells, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced injury were examined. Cells were pre-treated with AA, GA or OA at 4 or 8 μmol/l for 48 hr at 37°C, and followed by 100 mM H2O2 treatment for 4 hr at 37°C. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory factors were measured. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein expression. Results showed that H2O2 treatment reduced both Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential of BEAS-2B cells. Pre-treatments from triterpenoid acids maintained Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. H2O2 stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-a and prostaglandin E2 in BEAS-2B cells. Three triterpenoid acids pre-treatments lowered the levels of these factors. H2O2 enhanced the protein expression of p47phox, gp91phox, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and p-p38. AA, GA or OA pre-treatments suppressed the expression of p47phox, NF-kB p65 and p-p38; but only at 8 μmol/l decreased gp91phox expression. These findings suggest that these triterpenoid acids are potent protective agents for bronchial epithelial cells to mitigate oxidative and inflammatory injury.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antiretroviral Therapy may have Anxiogenic Effect on Subjects

C. O. Nku, I. O. Ajiwhen, M. Odo, S. A. Bisong, E. E. Osim

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30307

Aims: To observe the effects of the antiretroviral drugs, Lamivudine, Zidovudine, and Efavirenz individually and in combination on locomotor behavior and anxiety.

Methods: Fifty (50) mice were divided into five (5) groups of ten (10) mice each. Group one served as control and was given normal saline. The next three groups received oral solutions of Lamivudine, Zidovudine, and Efavirenz respectively at doses of 2 mg/kg, 4 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg at volumes not exceeding 10 ml/kg body weight (i.e. 0.1 ml/10 g). The fifth group received a combined oral solution of the three antiretroviral drugs.

Results: In the Open field test, the frequency of line crossing, rearing frequency, and centre square entry are significantly (P=0.05) lower in the antiretroviral treated groups compared to the control, with a significantly higher centre square entry in the combined treated group than in the individual treated groups. In the light/dark transition box, it was observed that the duration in the light chamber was significantly (p=0.05) lower in the lamivudine and Efavirenz treated groups compared to control. The duration in the Zidovudine and combined treatment groups, though lowered, was not significantly different. There was an increase in grooming duration in the Efavirenz and the combined treatment groups, and a significant decrease in transitions in all the treatment groups compared to control. In the elevated plus maze, the frequency of open arm entry is significantly lower in the Efavirenz treated group compared to control. It is also significantly higher in the combined treatment group compared to all three individual treatment groups. The open arm duration is significantly lower in the three individual treatment groups compared to control. It is significantly lower in the Efavirenz treated group compared to the lamivudine and Zidovudine treated groups. The frequency of head dip did not differ significantly in the lamivudine and Zidovudine treated groups compared to control. It is significantly lower in the Efavirenz treated group compared to control. However it is significantly higher in the combined treatment group compared to control.

Conclusion: Taken together, our findings indicate an anxiogenic effect of antiretroviral therapy. However our results do not show a conclusive evidence that combined antiretroviral therapy has a greater anxiogenic effect on the subjects than single antiretroviral therapy.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Cyanobacteria

Dina A. Abd El Sadek, Ragaa A. Hamouda, Khalid Bassiouny, Hala Elharoun

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34457

Some cyanobacteria have therapeutic properties related to anticancer, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the polyphenol content together with antioxidant and anticancer activity against Ehrlich Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line in vitro of Anabaena oryzae, Calothrix marchica and Spirulina platensis, selecting the best alga for further investigations. The results indicate that methanol extracts of S. platensis has the greatest polyphenol content, together with the highest antioxidant and anticancer activity in vitro followed by A. oryzae and C. marchica respectively. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of S. platensis  methanol extract show that the most dominant content was octadecenoic acid methyl ester (ω- 9).   

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Fungal Evaluation of Three Brands of Disinfectants Sold in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State

U. O. Edet, C. I. Mboto, C. F. Umego, E. N. Mbim, U. E. George, C. Omoke

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34543

The antimicrobial activity of three commonly used disinfectant brands D, R and P against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. Their efficacies were determined using the In-use test and capacity test (Kelsey-Sykes) at different dilutions of the test disinfectants while their potency were tested under clean and dirty conditions using the Kelsey-Sykes standard test. The results of the study show that as the concentration reduced the susceptibility rates of the test organisms were also reduced. The potency of the disinfectants showed that they were all effective, with D being the most potent disinfectant as compared to other brands (R and P) under study. Furthermore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant than other test organisms. To ensure efficacy and maintain standard, regular tests should be carried out on old and new disinfectant products.