Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking on Some Hematological Parameters of Male Cigarette Smokers in Southern Nigeria

I. M. Okafor, H. U. Okoroiwu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33813

In Nigeria smoking is a common habit in both rural and urban areas. Cigarette smoking is associated with alterations in inflammatory markers among smokers and it affects various organs and tissues in the body including blood. Cigarette smoking is associated with development and progression of numerous chronic diseases worldwide. It is a known fact that smoking is one of the most important factors contributing to the evolution of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study investigates the effects of smoking on haematological parameters among tobacco cigarette smokers in Southern Nigeria. A total of 150 smokers and 110 controls (non-smokers) within the age range of 20-50 years residing in Calabar metropolis of Cross River State, South-South, Nigeria were recruited. The smokers were apparently healthy males who were regular cigarette smokers who have at least smoked 100 cigarette sticks in their life time. Full blood count was done using Sysmex, kx-210 automated haematology analyser (Sysmex America, Illinois). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined by westergren's method. The relative plasma viscosity was performed using the method of Bach et al. 1981. The tobacco cigarette smokers had significantly (p<0.05) higher haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, mixed cells, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, relative plasma viscosity, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width and significantly (p<0.05) lower neutrophil count as compared to controls. This study showed that smoking has negative effect on the haematopoietic system. The study has also shown that haematological parameters were altered in smokers and thus should be considered during diagnosis, interpretation of result and treatment of patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Low Prevalence of Helminth Infections among Primary School Children in the Volta Region of Ghana

Verner N. Orish, Jones Ofori-Amoah, Kokou Hefoume Amegan-Aho, Lennox Mac-Ankrah, Ibrahim Jamfaru, Innocent Afeke, Festus K. Adzaku

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34393

Soil transmitted helminths (STH), as well as Schistosoma haematobium and mansoni, are very common helminth infections among children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of helminth infection among children in the Volta Region of Ghana. This was a cross sectional study involving primary school children from 5 primary schools in 3 districts in the region. A total of 550 primary school children were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires were administered to each child, together with collection of stool and urine samples. Samples were then examined using the microscope to detect the presence of larvae and eggs of intestinal helminths as well as Schistosoma parasites. Pearson chi square test was used to evaluate the association between Schistosoma sp. and other variables in the study. Only 1.27% (7/550) of children in this study were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.91% (5/550) with hookworm. A single child was infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and 57(10.36%) children were infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Highest prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infections were seen in primary school children at the Afegame Evangelical Presbyterian primary school (34, 27.64%) and Davanu primary school (14, 17.72%). The low prevalence of helminth infection among the school children in this study might suggest a positive impact of the periodic deworming program for the children. This effort should be intensified, especially among the poor and vulnerable groups in the region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Weaning Foods and Nutritional Status of Children Attending Immunization Clinic at a Military Barracks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Chiemerie Adaeze Onyeka, Margaret- Mary Mezie-Okoye

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33668

Aims: To determine the relationship between weaning foods and nutritional status of children aged 6-23 months attending immunization clinic at a military barracks in Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria.

Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: 400 children who attend immunization clinic at the 2 brigade medical centre, Port Harcourt participated in the study which took place from July-September 2016.

Methodology: Systematic random sampling was done and data was collected using questionnaires. Weight (using Salter scale, model 180) and height measurements (with a wooden measuring board) were taken. The completely filled questionnaires (373) were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007, SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthro version 3.2.2, 2011 and presented in tables. Chi square and logistic regression was done to determine association between weaning foods and nutritional status.

Results: Response rate was 93.25%.The mean age of the children was 13.04±5.04 months, with 211 (56.6%) males and 162 (43.4%) females. Locally prepared cereals were the most commonly used weaning food, for 211(56.6%) children. Others include commercially prepared cereals 96(25.7%); family diet 12 (3.2%), combination of local, commercial or family diet 47(12.6%).Those overweight were 33 (8.8%), 23 (6.2%) were moderately wasted, 3 (0.8%) severely wasted, 44 (11.8%) moderately stunted, 36 (9.6%) severely stunted; 18 (4.8%) moderately underweight and 4 (1.1%) had severe underweight. Chi square test showed an association between weaning foods and all the forms of malnutrition (P <.05).Wasting and overweight were more with local + commercial cereals (16%, 16%, P = .001), underweight and stunting were more with local cereal+ family diet (15%, 40%, P= .001)

Conclusion: The poor nutritional status observed from this study was associated with the weaning foods used and emphasis should be placed on child care and feeding practices.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anthelmintic Activity, Acute Toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) on Onchocerca ochengi and Caenorhabditis elegans

Honoré Ndouwe Tissebe Menga, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Remy Mimpfoundi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34454

Aim: The objective was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic stem bark of A. occidentale.

Study Design: Ethanolic extract of stem barks of Anacardium occidentale was tested in vitro against the cattle filarial parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the wild type, the drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Place and Duration of Study: The work took place at the Laboratory of Applied Zoology of the Faculty of the University of Ngaoundere between May 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: Adults of O. ochengi were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with penicillin/streptomycin and plant extract or drugs. C. elegans was incubated at 20°C with plant extract or drugs in M9-medium. Worm mortality was determined biochemically by MTT/formazan colorimetry after 24, 48 and 72 h. Ivermectin and levamisole were used as positive control and DMSO as negative control. Acute toxicity on mice (Mus musculus) and phytochemical compounds were also determined.

Results: Ethonolic stem bark extract (SBE) of Anacardium occidentale was active against worms. O. ochengi was the most affected by the extract with the LC50 values of 88 ± 0.16 µg/mL, 3.18 ±0.17 µg/mL and 2.76 ± 0.10 µg/mL respectively after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation. The quantitative phyto-constituents screening has revealed the presence of tannins, phenolic acids, saponins and flavonoids. Tannins (107.16 mg GAE/ 100 g) were the most quantified compound followed by phenolic acid (26.23 mg/g GAE), saponins (9.33 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.16 mg of rutin/100 g). The acute toxicity study has demonstrated that at short term (14 days), oral intake of ethanolic stem bark extract was not toxic up to a dose of 1600 mg/kg by weight.

Conclusion: This study justifies the use of this plant by traditional health practitioners in managing the disease, and also suggests a source of compounds against Onchocerca volvulus.


Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Jala Peenisa Choornam Used for Peenisa Rogam

Y. M. P. K. Madushani, P. Sulosana, K. Selvaluxmy, H. M. U. I. Medawatta, T. Thayalini

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34584

Indigenous Medicine of Sri Lanka consists of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medicines. Herbal drugs are commonly used in Siddha Medicine. Peenisa Rogam is one of the common diseases of neck and above. Jala Peenisa choornam (JPC) mentioned in Siddha literature for the treatment of Jaladosham (Acute rhinitis) contains powder of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds, Curciuma longa rhizome and Nigella sativa seeds in 2:1:1 w/w ratio. There is no validated scientific data on the efficacy of JPC on Peenisa Rogam. Therefore, this study was aimed to standardize the JPC in terms of phytochemicals, physico-chemicals and antioxidants as total polyphenolic content (TPC) before evaluating the efficacy. C. bonducella seeds, C. longa rhizome and N. sativa seeds were cleaned, dried, powdered separately and blend together in 2:1:1 w/w ratio to obtain JPC and used for the standardization. TPC was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method.

The results revealed that the physico-chemical parameters: moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water extractable matter and ethanol extractable matter are 2%, 4.98±0.001%, 0.28±0.002%, 2.40±0.003%, 9.50±0.01% and 8.63±0.007% on dry weight basis respectively and the presence of phytochemicals: steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins (3.6 mg/g). TPC was 2.16±0.07 mg gallic acid eqiv./g of JPC.

In conclusion, the low acid-insoluble ash and moisture content indicates the good quality of this drug. The presence of phytochemicals in this plant determines the bioactivity. The phytochemicals present and high TPC content of JPC indicates the value for using this herbal drug as a nutraceutical.