Open Access Original Research Article

Cannabis Effects on the Visual Cortex Hisotarchitecture of Wistar Rats

A. B. O. Desalu, J. O. Owolabi, F. O. Adeyemo, S. Y. Olatunji, A. J. Olanrewaju, A. T. Oluwatosin

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34164

Cannabis is the most widely abused illegal substance in many countries of the world presently. It acts on the higher nerve centers and produces a feeling of intoxication with hallucination. Its main component, delta-tetrahydrocannabinol, produces the ‘high’ feeling that most users crave.  Adolescence is the age of continued neuromaturation and most users experiment at the adolescent age. The aim of this research is to evaluate the histological effects of Cannabis sativa on the visual pathway of adolescent Wistar rats. A total of twenty-four (24) adolescent Wistar rats were recruited primarily for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each labelled A, B, C, D which include the Control, Low Dose Group, Medium Dose Group and High Dose Group respectively. Administration lasted for 21 days with the Control group being administered pelletized rat chow and clean water ad libitum, the Low Dose group being administered 150 mg/kg body weight of the rat, the Medium Dose group being administered 250 mg/kg body weight of the rats and the High Dose group being administered 500 mg/kg body weight of the rats. At the end of the 21-day administration, the animals were sacrificed and the brain tissue specimens were excised and processed. The general histological demonstration of the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate body and the visual cortex was done using the H & E and Luxol Fast Blue Staining Techniques. There were observable effects of Cannabis on the body weight after administration. There were no serious morphologic changes in the organ weight in Groups B and C, but there were indications of such in Group D. The observable histologic effects of cannabis on the visual cortex are specific on neuronal morphology, spatial distribution of neurons and glia and neurophil integrity and this is dose-dependent.


Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic, Clinical and Therapeutic Characteristics of Children Aged 0-15 years with Nephrotic Syndrome: A Retrospective Study of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

Richard K. D. Ephraim, Ruth C. Brenyah, Festus B. Osei, Enoch O. Anto, Anthony L. Basing, Kwame O. Darkwah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33270

Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a common childhood renal disease globally with a penchant for the early years of life and has generated a lot of interest among paediatricians and nephrologists.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the clinical, therapeutic and socio-demographic features of children with nephrotic syndrome at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana.

Methodology: Hospital-based single-center study conducted from December 2015 to May 2016 among children with nephrotic syndrome at the Child Health Department of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Retrospective data of 172 patients admitted from January 2011 to January 2015 was used. Socio-demographic and laboratory data (biochemical and serological) of participants were retrieved from the laboratory database while clinical information (family history, past medical records, and symptoms) was retrieved from the patients’ records.

Results: Of the 172 participants sampled, 112 (65.1%) were males and 60 (34.9%) were females. The mean ages of the males and the females were similar (6.56 ± 3.25 vs 6.80 ± 3.19; p = 0.647). Interestingly, majority of the males 49 (68.1%) and the females 23 (31.9%) were within the age group 4-7 years. Compared to females, more male participants had ascites [17 (81.0%) vs 4 (19.0%)], and bilateral nephromegaly [13 (76.5%) vs 4 (23.5%)]. On clinical examination, the commonest conditions among the males and the females were hypertension [44 (25.6%)] followed by glomerulonephritis [31 (18.0%)] and then infection [15 (8.7%)]. The least condition on clinical examination among the participants was hepatomegaly [2 (1.2%)] which was seen more in the males [2 (100%)] than the females. Participants presented with more generalized body swellings [122 (70.9%)], facial puffiness [105 (61.0%)], and symptoms of infection [101 (58.7%)]. Hematuria [3(1.7%)] was uncommon among the participants and was lower in the males [1(33.3%)] than the females [2(66.7%)]. Most participants had undetermined steroid response with males dominating. Males were more sensitive to steroids than females.

Conclusion: Nephrotic syndrome was common among males aged 4-7 with low social class. Renal impairment, generalized body swelling, facial puffiness, symptoms of infection and hypertension were the commonest clinical manifestations. Males were more steroid sensitive than females.


Open Access Original Research Article

Leptin and GABA Interactions on Body Temperature of Rats with Experimental Model of Obesity

Milen H. Hristov, Elisabetta Di Blasi, Rumen P. Nikolov, Krassimira S. Yakimova

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34428

Leptin as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy balance. The present study determined the effect of leptin on the core body temperature in rats with experimental model of obesity, as well as the changes of body temperature in obese rats after systemic (i.p.) administration of GABAB-agonist baclofen and GABAB-antagonist CGP35348, applied separately or in combinations with leptin. The results suggested significant changes in the effects of substances on rats with experimental model of obesity in comparison with their effects on rats with normal weight. Leptin produced significant long lasting hyperthermia, the hyperthermic effect of GABAB-antagonist CGP35348 was relatively short lasting, while the GABAB-agonist baclofen caused longer lasting hypothermia. The hyperthermic effect of leptin didn’t appear when applied in combination with baclofen. There wasn’t synergism in hyperthermic effect of leptin and GABAB-antagonist applied simultaneously. Our results provide new point of view on the complex interactions between thermoregulation and energy homeostasis.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Questionnaire Study of Food – Drug Interactions to Assess Knowledge of People from Diverse Backgrounds

Sana Afrooz Sajid, Ruqiya Sultana, Muna Masaratunnisa, Shobia Naaz, Mir S. Adil

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33682

Background: Food drug interactions contribute a major reason for drug interactions but they are neglected due to less knowledge and awareness on it.

Objective: To assess the awareness about food drug interactions among various individuals from diverse backgrounds.

Methodology: This is the prospective questionnaire study comprising of 12 questions, each question have both right and wrong options, where as the last question is opinion based. The questionnaire was formatted in a simple and easy manner for the understanding of individuals from non-medical field. These forms were circulated online and the responses were collected.

Results: Thirty nine out of forty five responses from doctors were valid in which 65.55% were correct, 23.46% were wrong and 9.66% were unaware, similarly out of thirty three, twenty four responses from nurses were valid in which 44.07% were correct, 49.72% were wrong and 5.65% were unaware. From a total of 102 responses from clinical pharmacologists 81 were valid in which 72.27% were correct, 24.75% were wrong and 0.99% was unaware.

Discussion: Geriatric population is highly susceptible to food drug interactions due to polypharmacy and altered levels in absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. The study was successful in assessing the knowledge about food drug interactions in individuals from diverse backgrounds.

Conclusion: The clinical pharmacologists had more awareness on food drug interaction than doctors and nurses. The study findings support the need for nurses and doctors to update their practice through additional training and integration of knowledge and expertise about food drug interactions to improve the therapeutic efficacy, drug compliance and safety of patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Association of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome with Ventricular Repolarization Dynamics

Ayşe Kevser Demir, Selim Demir, Arif Arısoy, Sait Alim, Alper Güneş, Rabia Pişkin Sağır, Fatih Altunkaş, Kayihan Karaman, Şafak Şahin

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34397

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), an extracellular matrix disorder, is associated with an increased risk of heart diseases, including coronary arterial disease, myocardial ischemia, and arrhythmia. Ventricular repolarization abnormalities can be an indicator of these diseases. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate ventricular repolarization in patients with PEX by using noninvasive parameters. This prospective case-control study consisted of 32 patients with PEX and 32 controls without PEX. The diagnosis of PEX was made during a slit lamp ophthalmic examination upon the finding of white amyloid-like exfoliation material on the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens or iris. The QT dispersion (QTd), Tp-e interval, and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured from a 12-lead electrocardiogram. The Student’s t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. QTd was significantly increased in patients with PEX compared to the controls (42±17 vs. 25±15 ms, P < 0.001, respectively). The Tp-e/QT ratio was also significantly higher in patients with PEX (0.22±0.03 vs. 0.20±0.02, P = .021). There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the Tp-e interval (90±13 ms vs. 85±10 ms, P = .119). Our study revealed that QTd and the Tp-e/QT ratio were increased in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.