Open Access Review Article

Anatomy: A Chronological Review of the Evolution of Context and Content

J. O. Owolabi, P. O. Ogunnaike, A. A. Tijani

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33742

Anatomy as a subject is an ancient medical science. The early practitioners of Anatomy were morphological explorers and observers. Anatomy was one of the earliest sciences that marked the transition of logical reasoning from philosophy to science. This is why it is appropriate to describe the early scientists as both philosophers and scientists. Anatomy was considered and purposefully practised by the early scientists as a subject that was indispensable to understanding the form and functions of the body and the causes of pathologies. The subject of Anatomy evolved greatly; yet, has remained the bedrock of modern health sciences. Consequently, Anatomy has increased in sophistication and content volume. Advancements in technology and increased demand for better solutions have given several perspectives to the subject; thus anatomy in its current form has several fields - primary and applied. While Anatomy started as what is currently called Gross Anatomy which is the study of tangible morphology, other primary fields including Embryology, Histology, Genetics and Histochemistry have evolved particularly due to the advancements and sophistications in methods of studying the body towards better understanding of form, functions and disorders. Obviously, the radical, yet positive and purposeful evolution of Anatomy has an interesting chronicle and impact on content dynamics and the contexts at each point in time. To this end, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of Anatomy in the context of its modern form, yet with a clear understanding of its evolution and how it has affected the content of its modern form. This review article considered the chronicles of Anatomy in term of its content and context at each stage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Pyocyanin for Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Urinary Tract Pathogens

Thuraya Ahmed Mohammed, Maha Alfadel Mohammed Almahde

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/33379

This study aims to detect the antimicrobial activity of pyocyanin for inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract pathogens. Five different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from wound infection and eye drops. The isolates were tested for the production of pyocyanin by growing in nutrient agar after incubation at 37°C for 18 hours. Considerable amount of blue pigment pyocyanin were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa after growing in lauryl broth medium and extracted by chloroform extraction method. Maximal pigment achieved after 72 hours and used in sensitivity test against isolated microorganisms" S. aureus, S. epidermis, S. saprophyticus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, C. freundii and C. albicans". The antimicrobial activity of the pigment was evaluated using Mueller Hinton Agar medium. The isolated microbes from urinary tract infection have different percentages of microorganisms" S. aureus 15%, S. epidermidis 5%, S. saprophyticus 10%, E. coli 40%, K. pneumoniae 10%, P. aeruginosa 5%, 5% and C. albicans 10%". The pigment have properties that make it an important bioactive compound which has the ability to arrest the electron transport chain of bacteria and exhibit antibacterial activity towards gram positive and uncapsulated gram negative by different zone of inhibition at different concentrations. The inhibition zone was determined by using 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The S. aureus inhibition zone at 25% was 16 mm, 50% was17.5 mm, 75% was 20 mm and 21 mm at 100% concentration, S. epidermidis at 25% was 17 mm, 50% 20 mm, 75% was 21 mm and 31 mm at 100%, S. saprophyticus at 25% was 19 mm, 50% was 23 mm, 75% was 25 mm and 33 mm at 100%. E. coli at 25% was 13 mm, 50% was 15 mm, 75% was 25 mm and 22 mm at 100%. was resistant to 25% and 50% concentration and given inhibition zone 11,13 mm at 75,100% concentration. Also K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were resistant to pyocyanin. This study concluded that pyocyanin possess antibacterial activity against U T pathogens.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Access to Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in Galkacyo District, Somalia

Mohamed Suleiman Yusuf, Maurice Kodhiambo, Fidelis Muendo, John G. Kariuki

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32364

Background: Globally over half million women of reproductive age (15-49 years) die every year as result of pregnancy and childbirth complications, and 300 million women endure from debilitating injuries. Barriers to accessing skilled birth attendant services are many. In Somalia, one out of six women received appropriate care due to lack of accessible basic and obstetric emergency care resulting into high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity. About 55.5%, of pregnant mother prefer to deliver at homes instead of health facilities and the availability and accessibility of traditional birth attendants influenced their choices. This study determined factors influencing access to skilled birth attendants by women.

Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 384 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Galkacyo District, Puntland, drawn from two villages selected randomly. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire and entered in a Microsoft package. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 using chi-square, logistic regression and association was considered significant at P<0.05.

Results: Among the women who were interviewed, 27% were delivered by a skilled birth attendant. There was significant association between access to skilled birth attendant and respondents level of education (OR=10.11; 95% CI: 4.8 – 21.28; p<0.001), Marital status (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 1.11 – 0.46; p<0.001), Husband's level of education (OR=4.99; 95% CI: 2.285 – 10.90; p<0.001), Decision maker about delivery (OR=0.15; 95% CI: 0.03–0.66; p=0.012), Respondent's occupation (OR=3.17; 95% CI=1.52-6, 62; P= 0.002), Husband's occupation (OR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.02-7.09; P=0.046) and Household's monthly income (OR=0.20; 95% CI: 0.11-0.37, P<0.001). 

Conclusion: There is need to educate young girls, to enable them make informed choices for their health outcomes. The Ministry of health should increase community health educations to overcome socio-cultural practices influencing access to skilled birth attendants. Also women should be empowered economically to enable them access quality health services including delivery care.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Medication Adherence among Non-communicable Chronic Disease Patients in Quetta, Pakistan: Predictors of Medication Adherence

Hummara Shaheen, Noman Ul Haq, Sohail Riaz, Aqeel Naseem, Muhammad Samsoor Zarak

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34300

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of medication adherence among patients with different non-communicable chronic diseases in Quetta, Pakistan. Moreover this study has also evaluated the factors affecting medication adherence.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with different non-communicable chronic diseases, by visiting outpatient departments in public/private hospitals and clinics in Quetta, Pakistan. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (Urdu version) was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to present the demographic and disease-related information. Inferential statistics were used to evaluate the relationship among study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0.

Results: A total of 505 patients with different non-communicable chronic diseases were enrolled for the present study. The mean age of the patients was 44.9 years, and the majority, 304 (60.2%), were females. Most patients in this study had exhibited poor medication adherence (61.0%) while only a few (11.1%) were adherent to their medication and some (27.9%) had shown moderate adherence to medication. In addition, patient’s age, gender, ethnic group, disease type, forgetfulness, patient’s satisfaction level, motivation level, number of medicines prescribed and frequency of medicine used were identified as significant influential factors for drug adherence.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the level of medication adherence among patients with non- communicable chronic diseases was very poor and predictors were also identified. Efforts should be made to overcome the factors associated with non-adherence so that the level of adherence is improved to achieve better therapeutic outcomes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Accessibility of Children Living with HIV/AIDS to Hospitals in Ten Districts in Indonesia

Rini Sasanti Handayani, Max Joseph Herman, Mujiati ., Siti Masitoh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/34205

Background: Children living with HIV/AIDS should be treated with antiretroviral throughout life so accessibility to hospitals is one of the factors that affect treatment access. The purpose of this study was to identify the distance, travel time and the length of time required in hospitals to undergo antiretroviral therapy (ART). 

Methodology: This study is a mixed methods study using a cross sectional approach. The study locations covered ten districts. Quantitative data were analyzed using the chi - square test, while qualitative data used content analysis. 

Results: The study show that 38.1% children lived more than 10 km away from the hospital, 18.6% need more than an hour to get to hospital 44% need more than 4 hours to get medication (starting from enrollment up to receiving drugs).

Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between travel time and the duration of treatment with adherence to get ART. Stigma and discrimination led them to choose hospitals which are located far away. To improve accessibility, central officer or NGO should inform where mobile clinics are available or help get the drugs from hospital for them.