Open Access Review Article

Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis: A Review of the Current Methods in Clinical Practice

B. O. Kayode-Adedeji

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32627

Introduction: The burden of neonatal sepsis continues to be significant, more so in the preterm population. It is quite challenging to make early diagnosis because the early signs of sepsis may be subtle, and resemble those of other non-infectious processes; furthermore, cultures take time and the yield is quite low with wide inter-laboratory variation.

Alternative diagnostic tests are simply not accurate enough. The resulting implications of these challenges include prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy for at-risk neonates.

An early diagnostic test that is highly accurate will be immensely beneficial in guiding clinicians in neonatal units on commencement of antibiotics and when to stop.

This metanalysis assesses the usefulness, reliability, limitations and challenges in clinical practice of some of the tests for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Methods: A metanalysis of articles on the different methods of diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in clinical practice as well as scientific papers comparing various methods was carried out. Sources include but not limited to Pubmed, HINARI and EMBASE database.

Conclusions: Extensive work is being performed to find the ideal test for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Despite numerous studies on acute phase reactants, their use in clinical setting is limited to CRP and PCT to some extent.  There is still need for further research work to find an ideal test for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. However, the methodologies and study designs are to be harmonized in order to obtain ideal cut-off acceptable values.


Open Access Review Article

Naturally Available Essential Oils for Aromatherapy

Rochana Dudwadkar, Rashmi Kumar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31948

Aromatherapy is an art of using essential oils for healing our mind and body. The meaning of aromatherapy is not so clear; the term ‘aroma’ means fragrance (sweet smell) and the term ‘therapy’ means to cure or to heal. Aroma and massage therapy are the practice of using essential oils for psychological and physical well-being via inhalation or massage. Essential oil is the volatile portion extracted from herbs, flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plantby the process of distillation, to treat various diseases. Essential oils are natural, complex, multi-component systems composed mainly of terpenes in addition to some other non-terpene components. The meaning of the word aromatherapy is misinterpreted as, only massaging the essential oils into the skin and curing the patients’ disease, although volatility- the main property of a fragrance, is responsible for the treatment. Essential oil is indeed an extract but not the aroma present in it. This paper discusses the therapeutic property of aroma available in naturally available essential oils, its composition and how it heals our mind, body and uplifts our soul.


Open Access Original Research Article

Benign Breast Diseases in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria: A Retrospective Review of One Hundred and Thirty Five (135) Cases

B. A. Eke, B. A. Ojo, C. E. Okonkwo, I. N. Mba, J. A. Ngbea, R. Vhriterhire

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32367

Benign Breast Disease (BBDs) encompasses a diverse group of lesions that may present with a wide range of symptoms or may be detected as incidental microscopic findings. We presented a retrospective review of 249 cases of histopathologically diagnosed breast lesions seen at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria between October, 2012 and January, 2017. BBDs accounted for 135 (54%) of all breast biopsies seen. Fibroadenoma was the commonest histological lesion comprising 74 (54.1%) of cases and with a peak age of incidence at 20-29 years. This was followed by fibrocystic changes (FCCs) with 26.3% of cases and with similar peak incidence age of 20-29 years. Other less common lesions including inflammatory lesions, fibroadenoma with fibrocystic change, fat necrosis, phylloides tumour, breast abscess, tubular adenoma, atypical hyperplasia, granular cell tumor and gynecomastia all together accounted for the remaining 19.9%. Benign breast diseases, a diverse group of lesions constitute the vast majority of breast lesions in Makurdi .With increase advocacy, awareness and health education coupled with use of mammography and needle biopsies, its diagnosis can be established.


Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Medication Patterns and Practices among Undergraduate Dental Students Compared to Undergraduate Non-Dental Students- A Cross-Sectional Study

Kavya Sanghavi, Kinnari Kasabwala, Juhi Gundavda, Bhagayshree Thakur, Pankaj Gupta

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32494

Introduction: Self-medication, which is an element of self-care, is a practice which if practiced responsibly can reduce the load on the healthcare system; but when practiced irresponsibly can lead to a myriad of problems.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of self-medication practices and behavior among undergraduate dental students and to compare them with those of non-dental undergraduate students.

Materials and Methods: Four ninety-two undergraduate dental students and three hundred and seven non-dental undergraduates from Mumbai who consented to participate in the study were administered a semi-structured anonymous questionnaire regarding their gender, field of education, year of study, their self-medication habits, most common symptoms and drug class used for self-medication and the reason for the same. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS ver. 23. (statistical package for social sciences) Frequency tables were generated, and statistical relationship between the variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: The response rate for the study was 93.01%. The percentage of dental students who self-medicated were 54.1%, while the same percentage was 42.3% in non-dental undergraduates. The most common source of drug information in both dental undergraduates and non-dental undergraduates was the pharmacist (25.60% in dental students and 36.90% in non-dental students). The most common symptom for which self-medication was practised by dental and non-dental students was cough and cold, although, the distribution of symptoms were more varied and tended towards the more complex ones in the dental undergraduates. The most common reason for self-medication in dental undergraduates was the illness being a mild one, while the same was the need for quick relief in non-dental undergraduates. 

Conclusion: Although there was only a slight difference in the self-medication practices of dental undergraduates and non-dental undergraduates, the former tends to make slightly more rational decisions about the same. The awareness about responsible self-medication in dental undergraduates needs to be emphasised throughout their course of study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors and Timing of Initiation of Ante Natal Care

Eliphas Gitonga

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32923

Background: Maternal mortality is a major problem in developing countries. Sub saharan countries host more than 90% of maternal deaths in the world. In Kenya the maternal mortality ratio is quite high at 362 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births.  Ante natal care is one of the key entries for strategic interventions to reduce maternal mortality. These include health promotion, birth preparedness and sensitization on skilled birth attendance. Early initiation of ante natal care is necessary to achieve the targeted outcomes. The main aim of this study was to assess the predictors and outcomes of timing of initiation of ante natal care.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study among women who had delivered within six months prior to the study. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data in a sample size of 327 respondents. Chi square and Fishers’ exact were used to test associations while binary logistic regression was used to determine the predictors.

Results: The mean gestational age of initiation of ante natal care was 5.3 months while the proportion of early initiation of ante natal care was 26%. The predictors of  early initiation of ante natal care were attaining secondary education, formal employment, increased family income, having a partner during pregancy and short duration to the health facility. Early initiation of ante natal care increased the likelihood the key outcomes; birth preparedness, focused ante natal care and skilled birth attendance.

Conclusion: Most women start their ante natal care late. Timing of initiation of ante natal care determines other outcomes of perinatal care. This can be improved by increasing the number of women with secondary education, social support, economic empowerment and increasing accessibility to health facilities.