Open Access Original Research Article

Effective pH-responsive Hydrazine-Modified Silica for Doxorubicin Delivery

Uyen Vy Vo, Tuong Vi Tran, Do Minh Thien Nguyen, Cuu Khoa Nguyen, Ngoc Tram Nguyen Thi, Dai Hai Nguyen

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32253

Aims: A type of pH-responsive porous nanosilica (PNS) for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery using Hydrazine was developed

Study Design:  PNS was first prepared by a sol-gel method and then modified with Hydrazine via 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agents, (PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine) for loading of DOX (DOX/PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomaterials & Bioengineering, Institute of Applied Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, between February and June 2016.

Methodology: The obtained PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, DOX loading and release behavior of PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine were also evaluated.

Results: The PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine was successfully synthesized with spherical shape and diameter range of 45-75 nm, which was a little larger than that of PNS-GPTMS of 35-65 nm. In addition, DOX was effectively encapsulated into PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine nanoparticles, which was approximately 61.6%, and was slowly released up to 96 h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.4). Especially, the modified PNS was found to be rapidly release DOX under acidic environment (PBS, pH 5.5), indicating the pH-responsive property.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that PNS-GPTMS-Hydrazine can be used as an effective and pH-responsive nanocarriers for DOX delivery. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Testicular Volume and Sperm Count in Infertile Men in Southern Nigeria

B. A. Manuel, E. W. Ugboma, N. C. Nwankwo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/29182

Background: The gold standard for assessment of testicular function in men being evaluated for infertility is semen analysis. There however is a correlation between the testicular volume and testicular function. Ultrasound of the testicles can be used to measure its volume and thus based on this relationship be a pointer to testicular function.

Aim: To examine the association between testicular volumes obtained by scrotal ultrasound and testicular function in infertile men in Southern Nigeria.

Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 100 infertile men referred to the Department of Radiology in the University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, over a nine month period for scrotal ultrasound examination. All scrotal ultrasound scans were carried out with a Mindray DC-8 diagnostic ultrasound system using a 7.5MHz transducer. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. Pearson's Correlation was used for the correlation studies with a p values of less than 0.05 considered as statistically significant.

Results: The mean testicular volume (MTV) for the study population was 13.14 ± 5.16 cm3.

A statistically significant positive correlation was noted between the total sperm count and testicular volume (r=0.397, p<0.0001). There was a peak in sperm concentration at a mean testicular volume (MTV) of 25.1-27 cm3. Severe oligospermia (sperm concentration <5 million cells/ml) was noted at a MTV of 7 cm3 and less.

Conclusion: Testicular volumes obtained from scrotal ultrasound examination correlate positively with sperm concentration in a non-linear fashion. A mean testicular volume of greater than 7 cm3 is necessary for sperm concentrations of > 5 million cells/ml.


Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors Assessment of Zoonotic Anthrax among the People at Risk (PAR) in Selected Areas of Bangladesh

M. A. Islam, M. M. Mahmud, S. Yesmin, M. M. Islam, M. S. A. Sarker, K. H. M. N. H. Nazir

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32369

Aim: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the risk factors among the people at risk in selected areas of Bangladesh, considering awareness, attitudes and management practices towards anthrax.

Methodology: Administrative areas of Bangladesh had been classified into high-, medium-, and low-risk anthrax areas by assessing the risk of anthrax based on the reports published in daily newspapers and scientific journals. The selected high-, medium- and low-risk areas were Kushtia, Pabna and Mymensingh districts. The animal owners and family members, butchers, and the affected people by cutaneous anthrax were considered as the key informants. Data on management practices including feeding, awareness to zoonosis, vaccination and institutional education were collected using interview-questionnaire method. A total of 622 data were            collected and uploaded to the data collection tools “Magpi”, and the data were analyzed using Epi Info™.

Results: In the study areas, about half of the people had no institutional formal education (46.46%; n=289/622). The farmers at high-risk districts were significantly (p=0.000) aware to anthrax as compared to those from medium- and low-risk districts. The level of knowledge about zoonosis of anthrax and vaccination of anthrax were poor among the people from both medium- and low-risk areas. For treatment of animals, most of the farmers (about 98%) at high- and low-risk areas depended on village doctors. In our study, improper washing of grass and occurrence of flood in the study areas were significantly (p=0.000) correlated with anthrax outbreak. 

Conclusion: Increasing awareness towards zoonosis of anthrax, proper vaccination, treatment of diseased animal by registered veterinarians, and washing of grasses before serving to animals may help to reduce the anthrax outbreak in Bangladesh.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude towards Ebola Virus Disease among Commercial Tricycle (Keke) Riders in Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria

E. U. Nwonwu, S. Nwafor, N. Nwafor, E. Chikere, C. Nwaejike, N. C. Eze, B. N. Azuogu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7,
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30886

Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and non-human primates (such as Monkeys, Gorillas and Chimpanzees).

Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks in Nzara, Sudan and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. No cases of Zaire Ebola virus has ever been reported in West Africa until the recent outbreak.

The study was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude towards Ebola virus disease among commercial tricycle (Keke) riders in Abakaliki in case of recurrence.

Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional study design was used for the survey. Data were collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire from 300 commercial tricyclists selected using systematic sampling technique.

Results: Majority of the respondents (99.33%) were aware of EVD. Fifty seven percent (57%) of respondents had good knowledge of EVD. Respondents with non-formal education had 37.5% good knowledge while those with formal education had 52.1% good knowledge.

Concerning their attitude towards EVD, 75% of the respondents had negative attitude. Respondents with non-formal education had higher negative attitude (81.2%).

Conclusion: There is need for more sensitization of the public as some of the respondents had negative attitude towards EVD.


Open Access Short Research Article

Rescue and Emergency Management of a Water-Related Disaster: A Bangladeshi Experience

Animesh Biswas, Jahangir Hossain, Abu Sayeed Md. Abdullah, Koustuv Dalal, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Delwer Hossain Hawlader

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32163

Background: The Padma, one of the largest rivers in the world, is crossed by thousands of people every day by boat or launch (a local made ferry). However, the number of launches is insufficient, and launches are frequently overloaded with passengers. The authorities do not strictly enforce waterway rules. On 22 February 2015, a cargo vessel hit a launch carrying over 200 passengers in the Padma near Paturia launch terminal, Manikganj, Bangladesh. At least 79 people including 14 children and 28 women died and over 50 went missing. Here we examine the rescue process and emergency management services during this event.

Methods: Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews and reviews of the daily national newspaper reports on the disaster event and related documents were performed. 

Results: At 11:40 am, the launch sank in middle of the river 15 minutes after it had left the terminal after collision with a cargo vessel. The launch was carrying 200 passengers even though its capacity was 140. Around 100 passengers were either rescued or swam about half a kilometer to reach the shore. Locals started rescuing passengers immediately after the accident with the help of boats and trawlers from both sides. Around 150 members of different government rescue agencies participated in the rescue operation from 12:00 noon to midnight. A rescue vessel reached the accident site at around 11.00 pm to salvage the sunken vessel. After 24 hours of rescue operations, 70 bodies were handed over to family members.

Conclusion: Emergency management was inadequate, and the launch authorities did not take appropriate measures to rescue passengers from drowning. Mass public awareness is essential to enforce the rules for safe river crossing. A national level policy is required for mass rescue during water-related disasters.