Open Access Original Research Article

Associated Factors in the Declining Trend in the Use of Progestogen Only Injectable Contraceptive in a Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Emmanuel O. Oranu, John D. Ojule, Ngozi C. Orazulike

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/32120

Background: Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive (POIC) is a reversible and widely accepted contraceptive method. In an earlier study in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, it was the contraceptive method of choice for the clients; a recent review however showed a declining acceptance and increasing discontinuation hence the study.

Objectives: To determine the associated factors in the declining acceptance and growing discontinuation of progestogen only injectable contraceptives in our centre.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of clients who accepted and used POIC at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2013. The case files of these clients were retrieved. Their data, which included socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for discontinuation of POIC was extracted, entered into a data bank and analyzed using SPSS for windows 19.0 version.

Results: During this study period, the main methods of contraception available and proportion of clients who accepted them were: condom-male and female- (44.52%), intrauterine contraceptive device (15.98%), POIC (15.35%), implants (8.20%), oral contraceptive device (7.63%), bilateral tubal ligation (2.66%), foam tablets (0.43%).

There were 1075 (15.35%) new acceptors of POIC out of the 7001 total new acceptors of contraception during this period. Secondary amenorrhea was the most common side effect occurring in 781 (72.7%) women. Eight hundred and fifty six (79.6%) were lost to follow up while 57(5.3%) discontinued POIC use due to pregnancy, a change to intrauterine device and implant; and complications such as weight gain and irregular vaginal bleeding. Other reasons for the decline in the use of POIC were multiple injections involved and frequent visits to the health care facility. No pregnancy was reported among these women during the study period.

Conclusion: There was appreciable drop in the use of progestogen only injectable contraceptive and reasons such as its side effects, increasing acceptance of intra uterine devices and implants; and dislike based on frequent visits to the health care provider and concerns on possible impact of the repeated injections were noted.


Open Access Original Research Article

Zingiber officinale Syrup Reduces Bacterial Load in Study Cases Infected with Helicobacter pylori in Northeast-Libya

Fayrouz A. Khaled, Marfoua S. Ali, Salema R. M. Qowaider, Rania Farge

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31144

Background: Helicobacter pylori plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, including gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and carcinoma. All the different lines of therapy have not shown maximal efficacy in the eradication/cure of the infection in patients. Consequently, alternative therapies including traditional medicines have been introduced both in the quest for better eradication therapies and in addressing the problem of H. pylori relapse such as Zingiberis rhizome.

Methods: The objective of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of Z. officinale syrup against H. pylori with fifty volunteers at Health center of Omar El-Mokhtar University, El –Beyda city in Libya. 2 gm of Z. officinale syrup were drunk daily for three months, samples of blood analyzed after 3 and 6 months of treatment.

Results:  From total samples examined after 3 and 6 months of treatment; level of antibody against H. pylori were decreased to be nearly up normal values at serum in most volunteers.

Conclusion: The study revealed a component within natural remedies such as ginger could be further used for prevention and treatment of H. pylori -induced gastritis in humans.


Open Access Original Research Article

Aerobic Bacteria from Surgical Wound Infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward in Specialist Hospital Sokoto – North West Nigeria

A. S. Shuaibu, Y. K. E. Ibrahim, B. O. Olayinka, R. F. Atata

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31284

Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are the third most common hospital-acquired infections (HAI) and account for 14% to 16% of all such infections. About 8.9% of Cesarean deliveries results in surgical site infections. It is the most common abdominal surgery among women in developed and developing countries. Infections arising from caesarean section causes prolonged hospital stay and there is a widespread aversion to caesarean delivery in Sokoto State.

Aim: Our aim is to determine the occurrence of surgical site nosocomial infections in Obstetrics and Gynecology ward of specialist hospital Sokoto.

Methods: This was a prospective study of surgical patients admitted into the Obstetrics and Gynecology (O and G) ward for the period of January to July 2014. SSI was diagnosed and classified according to the CDC system of standardized surveillance criteria for defining surgical site infection. Wound swabs were collected and processed as per standard microbiology procedures; and susceptibility testing was carried out using a disc diffusion technique. Data was presented in tables and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 20.0).

Results: The overall incidence of SSI was 10.4%. Patients of age less than 20 years were not only the predominant patients who underwent surgical operations, but also had the highest frequency of infection rate (14.3%).Emergency cesarean section had a greater rate of infection (14.1%). Staphylococcus spp. was the most common aetiology.

Conclusions: Surgical Site Infection complicates surgeries in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of Specialist hospital Sokoto and a system for surgical site infection surveillance with feedback of appropriate data to surgeons is highly recommended.


Open Access Case Report

Maxillary Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma with Oral and Nasal Extension in an Adult: A Case Report and Review of Literature

R. A. Vhriterhire, B. Ugbaje, J. A. Ngbea, B. A. Ojo, O. J. Ogbeifun, B. A. Eke

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31524

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumour that recapitulates the biological features of primitive striated muscle. This tumour is rarely encountered in adults. We present a report of maxillary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with oral and nasal extension in a 23-year-old man because of its rarity in both location and age.


Open Access Letter to the Editor