Open Access Review Article
Obesity is one of the major challenge of modern society which will lead to other health problems. Recently, researches have been conducted to understand the correlation between obesity and type of gut microflora with the objective to control severe health diseases by changing gut flora or diet. Researches also have been conducted to understand the relationship of serum leptin and obesity. Leptin is a hormone produced by white adipose tissue that acts as a satiety factor sending signals of nutritional status to the hypothalamus. Both gut microflora, as well as serum leptin, have shown significant associations with obesity individually and in relation to each other. However due to the great heterogeneous and complex nature of obesity, the question regarding their interaction with each other remains unclear. The objective of review are, firstly to identify the role of gut microflora & serum leptin; secondly, to analyse the interaction of gut microflora and serum leptin in the obese phenotype and lastly, to discuss the therapeutic benefits of gut microflora modulation for serum leptin.
Open Access Original Research Article
Infections are one of the most serious and dreaded complication in hospital settings especially for patients admitted in Intensive Care Units. Risk factors like decreased immunity and prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms in the surroundings along with multitude of drugs administered predispose the patient to infections. To formulate policies that are critical to effective treatment of such infections and prevent development of antibiotic resistance, there should be data of bacterial etiologies and infection patterns.
Aims: Detection of MDR pathogens like Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp as indicator of assessing the cleanliness and adherence to basic standard infection control and prevention procedures. The study determines the prevalence and microbiological profile of MDR pathogens in ICU.
Methodology: This prospective study was conducted at Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated tertiary hospital, New Delhi between January and December 2016. A total of 158 clinical specimens were collected from the ICUs and analyzed by standard microbiological methods, disc potentiation and modified hodge test for the identification of ESBL-producing and carbapenemases production respectively.
Results: Out of 158 ICU isolates analysed, 104(65.8%) were from the Family Enterobacteriaceae with Escherichia coli being the predominant. Among the Genus Acinetobacter 54(34.4%),
A. baumannii was 40(74.1%) and A. lwoffii 10(25.9%). Distribution among 104 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae submitted was: E. coli 42(26.5%), Klebsiella spp 52(32.9%) and Proteus spp 10(6.3%). Prevalence of ESBL producing was 22.7% and carbapenemases positive -9.6%.
All the pathogens were sensitive to colistin,
Low resistance was observed with E. coli, moderate resistance with gentamicin ranged from 14.3% to 59.2%, and High resistance observed with Amoxicillin-Clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem and imipenem.
Conclusion: The study finding has revealed the presence of MDR pathogens with ESBL and carbapenemases enzymes capable of compounding patient management and infection control measures.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching hospital health care facility, Akwa Ibom State.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study of registered pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done from October 2012 to April 2013 at University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of 230 clean catch midstream urine samples from pregnant women were collected and processed for significant bacteriuria as well as data from structured questionnaire were used in this study. Samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically and isolates were identified biochemically. All results were statistically analysed at P ≤ 0.05 using SPSS version 20.
Results: The prevalence of asymptomatic UTI in this study was 19%. The common isolates involved with asymptomatic bacteriuria in this study were Escherichia coli (48%), Staphylococcus aureus (11%) and Klebsiella species (9%). Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was highest in women over 30 years of age (33%) and within their first trimester (32%). Pregnant women with primary level of education in the hospital also had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (43%). However, the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was observed to occur independently of factors such as parity, occupation, pyuria, glycosuria and proteinuria. The most prevalent isolate, E. coli, in this study was sensitive to ceftriaxone (100%) and negative for the production of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL). Staphylococcus aureus, next in order of prevalence was sensitive to gentamicin (100%). All other isolates varied in their sensitivity to the antibiotics they were exposed to.
Conclusion: The presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this study occurred independently of factors such as parity, occupation, pyuria, glycosuria and proteinuria but there were observable relationship between maternal ages, gestational age and lower educational level of the women and the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: To provide information on the susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases. This was achieved by assessing the degree of salivary oxidative stress markers in smokers with or without periodontitis. We measured salivary concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), myeloperoxidase (MPx) activity, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration.
Materials and Methods: About 5 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected into plain bottles from 25 newly diagnosed subjects with periodontitis, 24 smokers without periodontitis, 20 smokers with periodontitis compared with 21 sex/age-matched apparently healthy subjects who are non-smokers and without periodontitis. The samples were collected between 09:00 hours and 11:00 hours at least 1hour after eating or washing of mouth and concentrations of salivary MDA, H2O2 and GSH and salivary MPx, SOD, CAT, GST and GPx activites were determined spectrophotometrically.
Results: Reduced salivary MDA concentration and elevated CAT activity were observed in non-smokers with periodontitis compared with non-smokers without periodontitis. Salivary CAT activity was higher in smokers without periodontitis compared with non-smokers with periodontitis. In contrast, salivary CAT activity was reduced in smokers with periodontitis compared with smokers without periodontitis. Salivary GSH was significantly reduced in smokers with periodontitis compared with non-smokers without periodontitis.
Conclusion: Reduced CAT activity may explain susceptibility of cigarette smokers to oral diseases or progression of periodontitis.
Clinical Significance: Cigarette smoking contributes to the progression of periodontitis and oral diseases.
Open Access Short Research Article
Aim: This study determined the prevalence of transient congenital hypothyroidism at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. (UPTH)
Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the commonest causes of preventable mental retardation. About 85% of cases of congenital hypothyroidism are sporadic. Most of the affected neonates show no clinical features at birth. Screening programs have been established in many developed countries but data in Nigeria is sparse.
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 436 neonates between January and December, 2014.
Place and Duration of the Study: This took place between January and December, 2014 in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.
Methods: Serum from cord blood samples was assayed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and those with increased levels had follow up assay for free thyroxine (free T4).
Results: A total of 436 neonates were screened. Twenty-seven of them had increased TSH levels and six of those with increased TSH levels had low free T4 concentrations. The risk factors identified by history taking did not show a statistically significant association.
Conclusion: The prevalence of transient primary congenital hypothyroidism was 1.4%. This is higher than that found in most parts of the world and similar to studies done previously in Nigeria.