Open Access Original Research Article

Internal Medicine as a Career Choice by Medical Undergraduates in a Developing Country

Monday O. Ogiator, Babarinde A. Ojo, Ephraim T. Ieave, Adaora B. Ogiator

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31451

Career choice is a very crucial decision for medical students. Information regarding area of specialization of medical students is important to plan human resources for health and ensure a fair, equitable and quality health care service in a country. This study aims to determine the rate of selection of internal medicine as an area of specialization as well as factors that influence medical students when choosing specialties in a Nigerian medical school.

Methods: Fourth, fifth and final year students of college of medicine, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria completed a pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, reasons for career choices and suggestion on improvements in the teaching of medicine in medical schools.

Results: One hundred and sixty questionnaires were distributed to 160 medical students. A total of 150 students responded (125 males and 25 females). The popular choices among the students were surgery 30.7%, internal medicine 19.3%, obstetrics and gynaecology 12.7% and paediatrics 9.3%. The factors which influenced career choice among participants included natural interest, job satisfaction/opportunities, personal convenience and role model.

Conclusion: Internal medicine was the second most popular specialty selected by medical students. The main reason for selecting internal medicine as an area of specialization was personal interest, job satisfaction/opportunities and personal convenience.


Open Access Original Research Article

Carriage of Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Anterior Nares of a Healthy Student Population

Kome Otokunefor, Martina Emeonye, Glory Odion

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31754

Aims: This study set out to explore Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rates in University student populations and determine possible effects of consistent contact with hospital environment, on carriage levels.

Introduction: Nasal carriage of S. aureus (the second most common human pathogen isolated in the clinical laboratory) has long been recognized as a major risk factor for the development of infection. Few studies have however focused on exploring nasal carriage rates in University student populations.

Methodology: Anterior nares of 140 University students (70 medical and 70 non-medical) were analyzed for the carriage and antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.

Results: Overall, 46 (32.9%) S. aureus nasal carriers were detected, with higher carriage rates observed in medical students (38.6% versus 27.1%). Overall rates of resistance to isolates were 100% for augmentin, 100% for cloxacillin, 97.8% for erythromycin, 93.5% for ceftazidime, 84.8% for cefuroxime, 73.9% for ceftriaxone, 69.6% for gentamicin, and 6.5% for ofloxacin. Majority of isolates (41, 89.1%) were multidrug resistant.

Conclusion: This study contributes to the relatively limited epidemiological data on an important pathogen. It provides a worrisome picture of high carriage of MDR isolates. Further studies are needed to provide more data, explore possible risk factors and design control measures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Aetiology and Outcome of Aki in Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi, Nigeria - A Three (3) Year Review

Monday O. Ogiator, Chinyere I. Okpara, Peter T. Mbaave, Godwin Achinge, John Okopi, Adaora B. Ogiator

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31579

Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information on the aetiology and outcomes of AKI will help to audit practice and advocate for policies that will improve outcome of patients with AKI. This study aims to determine the common aetiologies of AKI and the outcome of patients with AKI treated in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a three (3) year retrospective study that involved 104 patients with AKI. The socio-demographic information, aetiology, treatment and outcome of treatment were recorded.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 38.1911.25. Common causes of AKI were sepsis, hypovolaemia and obstructive uropathy. Sixty(57.7%) presented in stage 3, 56(53.8%) had haemodialysis, 48(46.2%) were managed conservatively. Twenty six(25%) died, 46(44.2%) fully recovered, 27(26%) partially recovered and 5(4.8%) were referred.

Conclusion: Sepsis and hypovolaemia were the commonest causes of AKI. The mortality is high and late presentation is a major contributory factor. Early presentation, treatment and making haemodialysis affordable are key to improving AKI outcomes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Cancer and Oral Sex: Awareness and Practice among Nursing Students in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

K. K. Kanmodi, B. A. Amoo, A. E. Sopeju, O. R. Adeniyi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/29935

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of oral sex, and explore the level of awareness on oral cancer among nursing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study carried out among 158 nursing students in 3 selected nursing schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and awareness of oral cancer risk factors and symptoms. All administered questionnaires were returned, and none was discarded because they were properly filled.  Data was analysed using the SPSS Version 16 software.

Results: The majority (83.5%) of the respondents were between the age range of 15 to 25 years, and 79.1% were females. Thirty-nine (24.69%) respondents had practised sexual intercourse, 2 (1.3%) had practised sodomy, while just one (0.63%) respondent had practised oral sex. The majority of the respondents (115/158 [72.8%]) have heard of oral cancer, and their top three sources of information were books (50/115 [43.5%]), lectures (60/115 [52.2%]) and newspapers (23/115 [20.0%]). Concerning those 115 individuals that were aware of oral cancer, only 77.4% (89/115) of them knew that oral sex is an oral cancer risk factor, while only 36.5% [42/115]) of them knew of other risk factors. Lastly, the top three clinical manifestations of oral cancer known by these aforementioned 115 individuals were: oral ulcer (86.1%); mouth swelling (74.8%); and soft tissue discolouration (64.3%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of oral sex among nursing students in this study is 1%.  Many of them were not knowledgeable about oral cancer risk factors and symptoms. There exists the need to educate nursing students in Ibadan on oral cancer.


Open Access Original Research Article

No Association between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; A Case-control Study in the North-Western Part of Ghana

Patrick Adu, Isaac Dogfobaare, Prosper Kuuzie, Kwame Osei Darkwah, Benjamin Twum, Richard K. D. Ephraim

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31952

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to infections as a result of impaired immune status as a consequence of hyperglycemia. Previous studies addressing the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diabetes mellitus have yielded conflicting results.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the determinants of H. pylori infection among type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM) and its associated predisposing factors.

Methods: This case-control study enrolled 112 T2DM patients and 83 healthy adults (controls) who attended the Wa Regional Hospital. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected using questionnaire and anthropometrics were measured according to standard procedure. Stool samples were analysed for H. pylori infection using the Onsite H. pylori stool antigen rapid test cassettes while fasting blood glucose (FBG) was also estimated by using the glucometer.

Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between the two groups [46% (cases) vs 39% (controls); p= 0.3073]. The mean ages of H. pylori positive T2DM patients and H. pylori negative T2DM patients were 56.83±10.50 and 52.81±11.65 years respectively. The mean FBG increased as BMI increased in diabetes and non-diabetes, with obese diabetic patients showing abnormal mean FBG level (7.76±1.44 mmol/l). Diabetes patients showed a higher mean FBG (6.526±0.1683) than the non-diabetes (4.272±0.1099) as body mass index (BMI) increased and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: H. pylori infection was not significantly associated with T2DM. Hyperglycemia, BMI and gender were not H. pylori-related predisposing factors in type 2 diabetic patients.