Open Access Review Article

Review: Parkia speciosa as Valuable, Miracle of Nature

Nur Adilla Zaini, Fazlina Mustaffa

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30997

Parkia speciosa (P. speciosa) is traditionally consumed medicinal plant for liver disease, oedema, kidney inflammation, diabetes and as anthelmintic. Recently, there are many reports on antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-hypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer and antimicrobial potential of various parts of this plant. Furthermore, the potential effect of this plant on cardiovascular system has been reported. This present review aimed to collect the scattered information on pharmacological effect of this plant. A number of possible future studies on the potential of P. speciosa related to pharmaceutical product could be successfully conducted with the details provided.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-inheritance of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Deficiency and Sickle Cell Traits in Sokoto Metropolis

I. Jelani, N. Garba, A. Zakariyya, S. Y. Isah

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30243

Background: Transfusion from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficient and Sickle cell traits (HbAS) blood constitute a major health burden and social challenge, especially to jaundiced neonate and sickle cell disease patient. Currently, routine screening of these two abnormal genes on blood donors in our locality is yet to be introduced. However, this study aimed at bridging the gap.

Methodology: This study screened 1000 volunteers for G-6-PD deficiency using methaemoglobin reduction method. Haemoglobin phenotypes of the deficient subjects were determined by alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis.

Results: Out of 1000 volunteers; 36.7% were G-6-PD deficient [128 (36.2%) were males; 248 (62.5%) were females]. Haemoglobin phenotypes (HbAA, HbAS, HbSS, HbAC, HbSC and HbCC) of these deficient subjects were; 71.30%, 23.90%, 0.50%, 3.70%, 0.30% and 0.30% respectively. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, and HbCC in G-6-PD deficient male was recorded.

Conclusion: Co-inheritance with G-6-PD deficiency and HbAS is high. This finding has importance in blood transfusion setting, as routine screening of these inherited disorders prior to blood donation may help in reducing the potential risk of haemolytic complications and also prevent failure of white blood cell filtration among high risk persons.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasmid Profile of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Wound Swabs from Hospital Patients in Akure, Nigeria

Akindele Peter Oluwayinka, Afolayan Cecilia Oladayo

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30973

A total of 347 clinical wound swabs were obtained in Ondo State Specialist Hospital. Isolated pure cultures of bacteria were subjected to various morphology and biochemical tests. The isolates were identified using Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Ten antibiotics (Oxoid UK) discs were used to determine the drug sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates. Plasmids were extracted by alkaline lysis method and electrophoresis of the DNA was carried out on a 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis.  This finding revealed that, out of 501 bacterial isolates collected from 347 wound swabs of patients; Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant (34.73%). Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (27.74%), Streptococcus pyogenes (15.57%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.18%), Proteus mirabilis (7.38%) and Escherichia coli (6.40%) were isolated respectively. Nineteen of the bacterial isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 6 or more antibiotics namely; Vancomycin, Methicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Netilmicin and Augmentin while all of the isolates were susceptible to Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Levoxin. S. aureus (1.4%) and P. aeruginosa (0.79%) were found to display high level of resistance to most tested antibiotics. Plasmid analysis shows that some multi drug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates harbor one or more plasmids with different molecular weights while some (MDR) bacterial isolates harbor no plasmid. Gene coding for resistance were located on the plasmid while the bacterial isolates without plasmids have their gene coding located on their chromosomal DNA. It is therefore recommended that antimicrobials for the treatment of wound infections should be based on a recent antibiogram tests.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Injury in Construction Site of Bangladesh - Findings from a Nationwide Cross Sectional Survey

Mohammad Jahangir Hossain, Arif Uddin, Aminur Rahman, Animesh Biswas, Fazlur Rahman, Saidur Rahman Mashreky

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31044

Background: Construction sites are recognized for high rates of injury in all over the world. Construction workers, even non-workers such as pedestrians and children are victim of injury at construction sites. In Bangladesh no reliable statistics is available on injury in construction site, mainly due to lack of well-maintained health information documentation system. In this study, Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey (BHIS) 2005 data was analyzed to describe the incidence, disability, population at risk and costing for the injuries occurred in the construction site.

Methodology: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to December in 2003 among 171,366 rural and urban households, with a sample of 819,429 populations.

Results: Incidence of injury in construction site was found to be 16.96/100,000 population per year. Of the injured 81.6% (n=114) were working on the construction site during the incidence. Males are more vulnerable with a risk of 12.46 times higher than female. Approximately 84.1% (n=117) of the injured were from the poor socio-economic conditions with a monthly income less than $100. Common injuries include cut by sharp weapon 29.0% (n=40), injury caused by falling objects 22.3% (2=31) and fall injury 21.7% (n=30). Moreover, among the injured 65.0% (n=90) were daily labourers and 1% (N=1) of the casualty continued to have lifelong persistent problems with disabilities.

Conclusion: High rates of construction site related injury was found among the populations of Bangladesh. Construction workers as well non workers, children are also victims of injury in construction site. National strategy is needed to be developed and implemented to minimize this public health burden. Therefore, formulation of a national strategy and its appropriate implementation is of crucial importance to minimize this public health burden.   

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Metal Based α-glucosidase Inhibitors: Synthesis, Characterization and α-glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Transition Metal Complexes

I. P. Tripathi, Aparna Dwivedi, Mahendra Mishra

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/31219

Aims: The aim of current study to examine percentage inhibition of α-glucosidase by synthesized transition metal complexes of 1,6-diaminohexane.

Study Design: Current study is based on given experimental methodology.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Science and Environment and Department of Physical Sciences, between June 2009 and July 2010.

Methodology: In current work we have synthesized metal complexes by various salts of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with 1,6-diaminohexane and characterized by means of infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. α-glucosidase inhibition activity has performed by standardize method of Tripathi et al. and calculated their IC50 value.

Results: All synthesized metal complexes of 1,6-diaminohexane are showing α-glucosidase inhibition activity among them [Zn(dahe)3]2Cl having highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity with lowest IC50 value 1.196 mg/ml while [Ni(dahe)3]2Cl having lowest α-glucosidase inhibition activity with highest IC50 value 3.633 mg/ml.

Conclusion: α-glucosidase inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs, which are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the clinical treatment of diabetes and obesity. Synthetic α-glucosidase inhibitor may be effective for antidiabetic treatment and other disorders because it is easy to synthesize and also having a great possibility to inhibit α-glucosidase. We have performed in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibition activity of transition metal complexes of 1,6-diaminohexane; however, need further work to validate reliability.