Open Access Original Research Article

Age and Sex as Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Setif Region - Algeria: Fuzzy Inference Modeling

S. Bouaoud, K. Bouharati, A. Mahnane, L. Kara, N. Boucena, S. Bouharati, M. Hamdi-Cherif

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30920

Aims: The risk factors for lung cancer are multiple. Smoking, Exposure to secondhand smoke, Exposure to radon gas, Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens, Family history of lung cancer. However, what characterizes these factors is uncertainty and vagueness. Several analytical studies have been devoted to this domain, but the complexity of the environment makes it very difficult to model those using conventional mathematical or statistical tools. Also, the classical tools of analysis characterized by the vagueness. This insufficiency is compensated in our method by the fuzzyfication of the variables. In this study, age and sex are analyzed over a period from 2006 to 2014 according with the incidences recorded. Given the characteristic of the variables analyzed, a fuzzy logic system is proposed.

Methods: The input variables (age and sex) are fuzzyfied as well as the output variable which expresses the corresponding lung cancer incidence. By referring to the values ​​recorded over the entire period, a rule base is established. The basis of the rules encompasses all possible combinations.

Results: The result is an algorithmic application which makes it possible to instantly read the expected incidence as a function of the values introduced randomly at the input of the system. The result at the output takes into consideration the collaboration of all the parameters at the input. Conclusion: As these factors are considered fuzzy. This makes it possible to have the most precise result possible. The presentation is symbolic and numerical and expressed instantaneously.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Conventional Iron Chelating Medicine and Natural Iron Chelating Substance on Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia Patients - A Study from West Bengal, India

Kallol Kumar Bhattacharyya, Ujjalendu Bikash Mondal

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/29569

Aims: The aim of this study was to find a harmless, cost effective and easy available iron chelating agent for blood transfusion dependent thalassemia patients who developed iron overload due to repeated blood transfusions and subsequent failure of vital organs and need a concomitant use of iron chelating agent for survival.

Study Design: Sixty transfusion dependent thalassemia patients were selected to evaluate the role and efficacy of a natural substance bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), as iron chelating agent.

Place and Duration of Study: Out Patient Department of Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal, India, between January 2016 and July 2016.

Methodology: The study was undertaken with serum ferritin level, liver function test, routine urine test, ophthalmic and auditory check up to assess the result of using natural chelating agent (bottle gourd) in comparison with commonly used medicine (deferasirox) as iron chelator.

Results: Deferasirox has shown different adverse effects in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients like increased hepatic enzyme level, proteinuria, auditory side effects, which were absent in its natural counterpart.

Conclusion: Natural substance bottle gourd has shown reduction of serum ferritin level without significant side effects and this is cost effective also.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces refuineus from Cocoa, Orange and Timber Plantation Soils in Akure Metropolis

F. O. Ekundayo, A. S. Faniomi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30407

Study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activities of Streptomyces from two plantation soils in Akure metropolis against some pathogenic bacteria. Purification of the Streptomyces filtrates was done by column chromatography using chloroform and methanol in the ratio of 2:1 (v/v). The antibacterial activities of crude and partially purified metabolites were evaluated against typed and clinical cultures (human and plant) of some pathogenic bacteria. For control experiment, antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the pathogenic organisms was determined by using sensitivity disc. Streptomyces collinus ORFUTA was the most effective in inhibition of pathogenic bacteria for both crude and purified metabolite. The functional groups present in the bioactive compound of             S. collinus ORFUTA revealed structure resembling hydroxyl group, alkane group and carbonyl groups. Partially purified S. collinus ORFUTA showed the highest zone of inhibition (21.31 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) while the least zone of inhibition (3.77 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the test isolates ranges from 3.75 to 15 mg/ml. Ofloxacin had the highest activity 28.00 mm against S. aureus. Streptomyces collinus from orange plantation soil from Federal university of Technology Akure can be exploited in antibiotics production to treat staphylococcal infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Partner Notification Rate among Antenatal Care Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

N. C. Eze, B. I. Ituma, E. N. Ossai

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/29949

Aims: To assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and determine the level of partner notification among HIV positive antenatal care attendees in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Study Design: A health facility based cross-sectional descriptive study. 

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria between January and April 2014.

Methodology: A total of 400 women attending antenatal care at Federal Teaching Hospital were selected using a systematic sampling technique. The clients were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Good knowledge of HIV transmission was assessed by the proportion of clients who correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical software version 20. Chi squared test of statistical significance was used in the analysis and level of significance was determined by a p value of less than 0.05. 

Results: The mean age of respondents was 28±9.0 years. Majority were married (97%) and had formal education. All the respondents were aware of HIV and 84% had good knowledge of HIV transmission. Knowledge was significantly associated with marital status, educational attainment and employment status of respondents. Sero-prevalence rate among respondents was 1.8%. Partner notification among sero-positive antenatal care attendees was 42.9%.

Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission was high among respondents, however partner notification rate among HIV positive respondents was 42.9%. This rate is low and need to be improved upon by awareness creation and encouragement of male involvement in antenatal care.


Open Access Original Research Article

Urine Analysis and Determination of Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Isolated Escherichia coli from Urinary Tract Infected Patients

Kaniz Fatema, Shamsun Nahar, Safirun Pervin, Ani Chakma, Mohammad Jakir Hossain, Sabrin Bashar, Tanzina Akter

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2017/30197

Urinary Tract Infections are one of the most common infections in medical practice. UTI is the common causes of complications, mortality, morbidity and economic loss especially in the developing countries like Bangladesh. Prediction of the agents causing UTI and knowledge of their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is important for the empirical therapy of UTI.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to isolate Escherichia coli from urine samples of patients suspected with UTI and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolated E. coli to commonly used antibiotics.

Place and Duration of Study: Urine samples were collected between February, 2015 to April, 2015 from a tertiary care hospital located in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. The  study  was  conducted  in  Centre  for  Excellence  Laboratory  (CEL), Microbiology Department of Primeasia University, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh.

Methodology: A total of 288 urine samples were collected during the study period. Urine sample was streaked on Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar, MacConkey agar, and blood agar media for isolation of E. coli. Gram staining and various biochemical tests were performed              for confirmation of E. coli. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was determined by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plate using commonly used antibiotics. For statistical analysis, Statistical  Package  for  Social  Sciences  (SPSS)  software, version  20  was  used  in our study.

Results: Sixty-six (22.92%) samples showed positive culture for Escherichia coli. E. coli was more commonly isolated from female (51.51%) than male (48.48%) patients. Results from antimicrobial sensitivity revealed that, E. coli showed high level of sensitivity to Piperacillin-Tazobactam (100%), Tobramycin (100%), Netilmicin (100%), Meropenem (98.48%), Gentamicin (96.97%), Imipenem (95.45%), Levofloxacin (90.91%), Amikacin (87.87%), and Nitrofurantion (81.82%). This bacterium showed moderate level of sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin (60.60%) and Azithromycin (57.58%) and least level of sensitivity to Nalidixic acid (33.33%), and Co-trimoxazole (22.73%).

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Tobramycin and Netilmicin could be most effective drugs in the study area for the empirical treatment of UTI.