Open Access Original Research Article

Immunostimulative Action of Trypanosoma brucei Phospholipase A2 Gene Containing CpG Motifs Confers Homologous Protection against Infection in Experimental Mice

Ishaya Y. Longdet, Bitrus Yakubu, Hajiya M. Inuwa, Isma’ila A. Umar, Andrew J. Nok

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/30065

Aim: Interest in phospholipase A2 has continued to rise since its biotechnological potentials and involvement in the pathogenicity of Trypanosoma species were recognized, therefore this study was designed to investigate the vaccine potential of Trypanosoma brucei PLA2 gene containing cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) motifs against trypanosomiasis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, NVRI, Vom; Department of Parasitology, NITR, Vom and University of Jos, Nigeria between June 2011 and April, 2012.

Methodology: Bloodstream rat adapted strain of T. brucei was grown in rats and separated using DEAE cellulose chromatography. PCR amplification of phospholipase A2 like gene from Trypanosome brucei cDNA synthesized by RT-PCR using parasites’ RNA was done. Bioinformatics analyses of the gene sequence were done using Finch TV® programmes (GeoPiza) and Webgene programmes. Immunization of mice with DNA, immune sera and spleen extract were also carried out.

Results: A 1344 sequence obtained revealed CpG islands between positions 1 and 904. Immunization of mice with the PLA2 DNA and in combination with partially purified parasite PLA2 enzyme suppressed parasitemia as well as improved hematological indices and so enhanced survival of immunized mice post-infection. Passive immunization with immune sera and spleen extract showed suppressed parasitemia throughout the experimental period and delayed mortality to a greater extent compared to the DNA immunization.

Conclusion: The findings signify that DNA immunization confers protection on mice revealing the vaccine potential of PLA2 like gene from Trypanosoma brucei.


Open Access Original Research Article

Weight Gain as Tuberculosis Treatment Regimen Progresses in Patients Receiving Antituberculosis Therapy

A. N. Umo, N. O. Umoh

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29090

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to be one of the most frequent underlying causes of wasting worldwide and this has however remained poorly studied and understood.

Methods: Pattern of weight gain during tuberculosis treatment in Ekpene Obom, Nigeria was assessed between January 2012 and December 2014. The 389 patients, who attended the TB clinic within this period, made up of 171(44%) males and 218(56%) females were used in this study.

Results: Patients had an average weight of 44.5kg at the time their infection was diagnosed. The percentage weight increment within this period was 12.1%. Yearly sex-specific percentage weight increment in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively for the males were 12.4%, 11.4% and 11.9% while it was 12.5%, 11.6% and 12.7% for the females within the same period. Similarly, within specific age groups, it also revealed an increment of 11.8%, 16.0%, 14.7%, 13.4%, 10.8% and 10.6% for 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years and 61-70 years respectively. The females were seen to have higher body weights than the males.

Conclusion: This study has shown that clinical recovery does not guarantee immediate restoration of body weight and also confirms weight gain to be an unreliable indicator of overall treatment response in anti-tuberculosis therapy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dental Caries among Preparatory School Children, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt

Hewida M. El Shazly, Hala M. Gabr

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/30174

Objectives: Estimating the prevalence of dental caries among preparatory school children as well as identifying the possible risk factors and determining the correlation between dental caries and total antioxidant capacity in saliva in the studied group.

Background: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting millions of people globally with high prevalence even in adolescent ranging from 60-90% and it is a major cause of tooth loss, pain and discomfort worldwide, however it doesn't have an inevitable outcome as some of the risk factors can be modified and caries can be prevented.

Materials and Methods: A case control nested in a cross sectional study was carried out in Shebin El-kom District Menoufia governorate. The study sample consisted of1283 children (651 males, 632 females). Saliva samples and questionnaire were collected through school visits. Total antioxidant capacity in saliva was done.

Results: Prevalence of dental caries was (62.8%) with Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth index (DMFT) score (1.3 ± 1.32). There was significant difference between children with dental caries and ones without caries regarding dietary habits and habitual optimal teeth brushing (p value<0.05).

Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries is high among preparatory school children, to face this problem, there should be a program carried by government specially Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health targeted both of children and their parents through different public media approaches. Programs should focus on the optimal teeth brushing and the healthy nutritional habits needed for better teeth health.


Open Access Original Research Article

Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction versus Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women

Sulieman M. El Sanousi, Zakia A. Osman, Abdul Asalam B. S. Mohamed, Mansoor Shueai Al Awfi, Yaser H. Babair, Maher H. Babair

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29717

Background: Cytomegalovirus infection is endemic worldwide. Most frequently used methods for antibodies detection in developing world are enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The polymerase chain reaction induces production of large amounts of specific deoxyribonucleic acid fragments from very low concentrations of complex substrates allowing detection of very low amounts of viral particles.

Objectives: To assess the accuracy of ELISA test in comparison with the polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood to detect pregnant woman at high risk of CMV infection and transmission to the fetus.

Study Design: Three hundred blood samples prospectively tested for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by using ELISA and for CMV DNA using real time PCR.

Results: CMV IgG and IgM were present in 274(91.3) and 17(5.7%) sample respectively. However, CMV DNA was detected in 89 (29.7%) samples. Eighty-four tested samples exhibited both IgG by ELISA and DNA by Real-time PCR. Likewise, IgM was detectable by ELISA from 10 subjects with DNA concomitantly demonstrable by Real-time PCR. By comparison, IgG detected from 190 subjects, with no DNA detectable by Real-time PCR. Similarly, IgM present in seven samples tested by ELISA, but no DNA detected by Real-time PCR.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the real time polymerase chain reaction test is more helpful for detection among pregnant woman who are at high risk of CMV infection and transmission to the fetus.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extracts of Anchomanes difformis on Female Sex Hormones: Preliminary Results

J. N. Egwurugwu, A. Nwafor, B. C. Chinko, K. C. Ugoeze, R. C. Uchefuna, M. C. Ohamaeme, M. C. Ebuenyi

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/30286

This study assessed the effects of extracts of Anchomanes difformis on female sex hormones in albino wistar rats. Forty female albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g divided into five groups of eight rats each were used for the work that lasted for four weeks. Group 1, the control group received normal saline and normal rat chow, while the test  groups 11,111,1V and V received 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg per kilogram body weight  of the extract respectively throughout the duration of the experiment, in addition to normal rat feed and water ad libitum. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture after chloroform anaesthesia every two weeks from four rats per group and assayed for the following sex hormones: Oestradiol, FSH, prolactin, LH and progesterone. The results showed statistically dose dependent decrease in the serum levels of oestradiol and progesterone in the test groups after two weeks of treatment when compared with the control (p<0.05). Furthermore, after four weeks of treatment, there were statistically significant dose dependent decrease in the serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in the test groups when compared with the control (p<0.05). The statistically significant decrease in LH was not dose dependent. In conclusion, extracts of Anchomanes difformis reduced the serum levels of female sex hormones in albino wistar rats. This may explain the use of this extract by alternative medicine practitioners in the treatment of uterine fibroids.


Open Access Original Research Article

Various Health Care Providers’ Knowledge of the Partogram Use during Childbirth, at the Bamenda Health District, Cameroon

T. Y. N. Verla, M. M. Ojong-Alasia, J. D. Sama, E. N. Tumasang, J. C. Ndipowa, M. B. S. Atanga

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29488

In a state of affairs where the provision of care to the child birth process is not purely in the hands of educated and trained midwives, the competency in knowledge and application of midwifery tools may be inadequate and consequently affect the quality of care. One of these tools is the partogram which is an inexpensive tool that can provide a continuous pictorial overview of labour and is essential to monitor and manage labour. The success of its use requires good knowledge and skills gained through formal education and regular in-service training. Furthermore, the partogram requires technical knowhow to carry out the observations and documentations. The lack of knowledge in its use leads to poor monitoring of labour where problems may be identified late, resulting in complications which may cause maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

This study assessed the existing knowledge and relationship between trained and untrained birth attendants (BAs) regarding the use of the partogram in nine public health facilities in Mezam Division, North West Region, Cameroon.

A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted using three tools - self-administered questionnaire, record review and an interview guide. Major findings indicated a good level of knowledge (61.8%). Statistical relationships were found between professional level and knowledge on the use of the partogram, and knowledge and training on the use of the tool.