Open Access Review Article

Drug Interactions, Safety and Efficacy of Probiotics

Khaling Mikawlrawng, Suresh Kumar, Kartiki Bhatnagar

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29244

The term “probiotic” etymologically appears to be composed of the Latin preposition pro, meaning “for” or “in support”, and the Greek adjective “biotic” from the noun bios meaning “life”, together these two words gave the meaning ‘for life’ or ‘in support of life’. Commercially available probiotics are formulations of live microbial cells such as Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that contribute to intestinal microbial balance. Prebiot­ics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specif­ic changes, both in the composition and/ or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host well-being and health. The term synbiotic is used when a product contains both probiotics and prebiotics. Probiotics are most commonly used for gastro-intestinal problems, such as inflammatory diseases and diarrhea, and for yeast and urinary tract infections. Probiotics are generally considered as safe, but there are reports of their unwanted outcomes and side effects, which could be associated with unregulated use, interactions with other drugs, and efficacy and storage conditions of these microbial formulations. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the issues related to such unwanted sequels due to administration of probiotics, so as to understand and cautiously use, and develop appropriate administrative regimes for this important dietary supplement.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxic Effect of African Black Soap (Sabulun salo) on the Histology of Albino Rat Stomach

O. M. Mohammed, A. Umar, A. S. Ajayi, I. Mohammed, A. O. Muhammed

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/28992

Background: Sabulun salo (African traditional black soap) is widely used among various local communities in the northern Nigeria as medicinal herb. This experimental research was carried out to study the effect of oral administration of the soap on the stomach of Albino Rats. The administration lasted for the period of two weeks.

Objectives: The objectives are to determine the effect of African black soap (Sabulun salo) on the histology of stomach, hematological parameters and food and water consumption.

Methodology: 20 Albino rats used for this study were randomly divided into four groups. The first, second and third group (AC, BC, and FC) were orally administered with 2000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg and 4000 mg/kg doses of Sabulun salo respectively. The control group received normal saline, the animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia. The stomach was excised and processed for paraffin embedding. Blood samples were collected for haematological analyses.

Results: Incomplete metaplasia of the stomach epithelia were seen in the albino rats fed with      2000 mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg of the extract while complete metaplasia were observed among those on 4000 mg/kg. There were significant increase in white blood cell, hemoglobin and packed cell volume in the entire groups except the FC group when compared to control. There was decrease in food and water consumption across the groups

Conclusion: The results of this research have shown that the Sabulun salo (African traditional black soap) is toxic to the albino rats exposed.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Students’ Interests on a Particular Area (Specialty) in the Profession of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, UDU, Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

A. S. Mainasara, K. K. Ibrahim, M. K. Dallatu, H. M. Ahmed, M. H. Yeldu, R. T. Isah, M. R. Garba, A. Garba, A. Ibrahim, I. M. Sadiq, A. Yahaya, A. Mu’awuya, N. H. Hassan, B. Y. Zayyanu

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29230

Objective: The objective of this survey was to ascertain a better understanding on the students’ interest on a particular area (specialty) in the profession of Medical Laboratory Sciences (Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science), Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU), Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed for this purpose. This study was carried out between January to March 2016. Five hundred and Six (506) questionnaires were distributed to the students (from 100 level to 500 level), but only Four hundred and Eighty-Three (483) were returned completed.

Results: Of the 53 Brilliant students participated in this study; 41(77.4%) male and 12(22.6%) female, the majority of the students have interest to work in Medical Microbiology; 16(30.2%) followed by Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science; 14(26.5%) Chemical Pathology; 13(24.5%) while Immunology; 5(9.4%), and Histopathology; 5(9.4%) have the least number of students.

Conclusion: This finding indicated that the most favorite laboratory discipline for training was Haematology/Blood Transfusion Science followed by Medical Microbiology, Chemical Pathology, Immunology and lastly Histopathology. It emerged after many discussions with the students of Medical Laboratory Science that they preferred Haematology/Blood Transfusion Science because it allowed them to use their theoretical knowledge to work with their hands and sometimes with automation than the other laboratories.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Reasons Why Students Study Medicine: Views of Students at Delta State University Abraka, South-South Nigeria

Nwagu Marcellinus Uchechukwu, Awunor Nyemike Simeon, Borke Moghene Emona, Ikusemoro Augustina Isioma

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29847

Background: The demand to study medicine in Nigeria is very high thereby putting lots of pressure to the University authorities because of inadequate space and provision to accommodate the large number of applicants.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors motivating students and influencing their desire to study medicine and proffer solutions to reduce the population of applicants to medical schools.

Methodology: Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 311 medical students of Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria. Data collated and analysed using IBM SPSS version 22 software.

Results: Three hundred and eleven students were interviewed comprising 193 males (62.1%) and 118 females (37.9%). The mean age was 23.47±3.92 years. More than 90% of the students were Christians and the same proportion were single. The Urhobos were of the majority. Reasons for studying medicine were: want to save lives (58%), doctors are respected (26%), other reasons such as passion for medical profession (12.8%) and desire to be rich (3.2%). People’s influences from friends, teachers and even family members were minimal as 51.8% of respondents took a self-decision to study medicine.

Conclusion: The reasons why the students study medicine were quite good and justified and hence they should be encouraged to fulfil their dreams. Government should establish more medical schools to accommodate the increased demand to study medicine. This will promote the production of more medical doctors and reduce the current poor and embarrassing doctor-to-patient ratio in Nigeria.

 

 

Open Access Minireview Article

Influence of Socio-demographic Factors on Adolescent’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Behaviour

Adebisi Temitayo Moyosore

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29439

Adolescents form a significant portion of the population whose health must be safeguarded in order to ensure a future healthy population. Adolescent sexual development comprises a variety of physical, biological, social and psychological changes which give rise to a mature adult physique and personality. Because of these numerous changes, adolescents can be easily influenced by the factors surrounding them with resultant effects like sexually transmitted infection(s), teenage pregnancy and fatherhood, septic abortion which will affect their future reproductive and sexual lives. The socio-demographic factors identified to affect sexual and reproductive development and behavior include sex, age, peer group, family structure, culture, alcohol and drug use and socio-economic condition of the family all of which have been identified by research. It can be concluded that these factors can also influence adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and therefore need to be modified to prevent adolescent sexual risk behavior and achieve a healthy population. It is therefore necessary that a good parent-child relationship and communication exist between adolescents and their parents as family is the strongest unit of socialization for an adolescent and also the degree of support from the family will determine the outcome of the developmental stage. Therefore, the need of adolescent reproductive health services which can help reinforce parental efforts cannot be over-emphasized.