Open Access Original Research Article

Lifestyle Diseases: Knowledge and Related Practice among Residents of Uyo Metropolis

D. C. Opara, U. S. Ekanem

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/28771

Aim: The study was aimed at determining the knowledge of some lifestyle diseases such as stroke, hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and obesity by residents of Uyo Metropolis, and their practices to prevent such diseases and documenting the knowledge of lifestyle diseases, activity profile, health seeking behavior and dietary practice of respondents.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Uyo metropolis; in markets, motor parks, secondary schools, the mechanic village and the Federal Civil Service Secretariat; between June and July, 2016.

Methodology: Three hundred and twenty-eight respondents participated in the study. Data was collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Most of the respondents were male (52.7%), never married (49.1%) and attained tertiary education (53.7%). Most of the respondents have good knowledge of symptoms of lifestyle diseases (62.8%) but not of their causes and prevention; however there was a significant difference when highest level of education and location was considered (P<.05). Most of the respondents (67.1%) spend nil to two hours on leisure/sedentary activities during the day and this consisted mainly of male respondents (35.7%). Most of the respondents with tertiary qualifications and located at federal secretariat visit the hospital when sick unlike respondents located at the market, motor parks and mechanic village who buy drugs from the chemist; a significant difference was recorded (P<.05). Most of the respondents take sugar added drinks (43.9%) and pastries (49.9%) nil-3 times in a week and many reported taking alcohol (67.9%).

Conclusion: Demographic characteristics such as level of education and location affect knowledge of lifestyle diseases, physical activity and health seeking behavior of respondents in Uyo. Intervention studies should be conducted to educate the masses on the necessity to maintain a healthy lifestyle which includes eating well, engaging in exercise and visiting the hospital/ wellness clinic regularly.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Efficacy of the Volume of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine Used and Its Influence on Spinal Anaesthesia Induced Hypotension during Caesarean Section

I. U. Ilori

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29234

Aims: To audit the spinal anaesthesia practice among physician anaesthetists and to determine the lowest effective volume of hyperbaric bupivacaine that could minimise the incidence of spinal anaesthesia induced hypotension during caesarean section.

Study Design: It was a prospective observational study of patients undergoing caesarean section. Patient recruitment was by convenient sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Obstetric theatre of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria between March and June 2015.

Methodology: One hundred and thirty one (131) patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Patients with antepartum haemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension or patients on any antihypertensive agents and those with contraindications to spinal anaesthesia were excluded. The spinal anaesthesia was instituted at L3 L4 interspace in the sitting position. The maximum height of sensory block and the number of patients that were hypotensive (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg) in relation to the volume of hyperbaric bupivacaine used were noted. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics was used to determine the association between the volumes of hyperbaric bupivacaine used, the height of block and incidence of hypotension.

Results: The volumes of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine used ranged from 1.5– 2.7 millilitres (mls). Sixty-eight (51.9%) patients received treatment for hypotension. The incidence of hypotension was related to volume of bupivacaine used and height of sensory block. The incidence of hypotension was more in patient that had 2 mls (62.9%). Less than 2mls was associated with lower incidence of hypotension (32.5%) but with a high risk of intraoperative analgesic requirement (22.5%). A block height below T6 was a risk factor for supplementary intraoperative analgesic requirement and above T6 risk factor for hypotension. The maximum height of sensory block did not have any significant relationship with the volume of the hyperbaric bupivacaine used, (P = 0.1).

Conclusion: Spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension is a complication that may not be eliminated. The incidence during caesarean section in this study was influenced more by height of block than volume of the drug used. The used of 1.5 mls (7.5 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and a block height of T6 could provide adequate anaesthesia for caesarean section and reduce the incidence of hypotension.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemical Screening and Nutrient Analysis of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Piper guineense

R. U. B. Ebana, U. O. Edet, U. M. Ekanemesang, G. M. Ikon, C. A. Etok, A. P. Edet

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29362

The study was carried out to examine the antibacterial, antifungal activity, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the petroleum ether, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Piper guineense in additional to their phytochemical screening and proximate composition analyses. All analyses were done using standard techniques. The bacteria isolates used were Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while the fungi were Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus species. The highest inhibition of 37.50 mm was seen using aqueous extract of P. guineense on E. coli. Consistently, the ethanolic and petroleum ether of                P. guineense was not inhibitory to P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the P. guineense leaves and T. tetraptera fruits were 80 mg/ml for both plants. However, the seeds had a higher MIC of 200 mg/ml. The highest sensitivity was shown by    E. coli while the least by P. aeruginosa. None of the extracts showed complete inhibitory activity against all the fungal isolates. The proximate composition of the studied plant parts shows that the leaves of P. guineense had the highest amount of moisture (85.15±0.01). T. tetraptera had the highest amount of fibre (11.38±0.02) while the seeds of P. guineense had the highest amount of protein (11.42±0.03). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of polyphenol, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, reducing compounds and flavonoids in all the samples with polyphenol being the most abundant in all the samples. Given the antimicrobial potential of these spices, there is a need for more studies aimed at evaluating the bioactive components in these plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Draw Resistance on NNK and Its Contribution on Cigarette Hazard Index

Wang Hao, Zhan Jianbo, Ji Yafeng, Fu Rongrong, Li Muyan, Chen Chen, Wang Xiuxiu, Perin Deniz, Li Zhiqiang, Gao Li, Li Tinghua, Cheng Liang, Yu Tingting, Xie Jiao, Ding Haiyan, Li Liwei, Yu Jiang, Yu Yao, Li Gen, Yu Zhenhua, Zhang Ying, Yue Baoshan, Zheng Han, Ding Wei, Zhang Jing, Wang Tao, Gong Weimin, Gui Yongfa

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29129

Effect of cigarette draw resistance between 860-1130Pa on deliveries of NNK in mainstream cigarette smoke(MCS)was investigated, and contribution degree of cigarette hazard index was proposed for the first time to study how the contribution degree could be affected by 7 harmful components. Effect of NNK with different draw resistance on contribution degree of cigarette hazard index was also investigated. The results showed that contribution degree of NNK is uniform, which is different from variation of Benz [a] Pyrene, ammonia and phenol, meanwhile, 1000Pa could be viewed as critical draw resistance, and there is an obvious mainstream cigarette smoke variation below and above 1000Pa. Analysis of contribution degree of cigarette hazard index separately is a feasible tool to study variation of smoke harmful components, which lays foundation for further changing trend and roles of different harmful components while the cigarette hazard index changes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Urinary Calculi: A Retrospective Study in Argentinean Patients

Liliana V. Muschietti, Viviana Campo Dall´ Orto, Gustavo L. Garrido

Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2016/29354

Aims: To investigate, by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the chemical composition of urinary calculi obtained from patients of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Duration of Study: The composition of the urinary calculi was evaluated in a retrospective study from March 1993 to September 2013.

Methodology: Infrared spectra of the urinary calculi were recorded in a Bruker IFS-25 FT-IR and in a Nicolet 380 FT-IR spectrophotometers. We included 440 urinary stones (286 from men and 154 from women). The samples were obtained by spontaneous passage, shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy mainly from patients treated at Hospital de Clínicas, University of Buenos Aires. 

Results: Calcium oxalate (both in pure or mixed samples) was detected in 326 cases (74.09%). Anhydrous uric acid (8.41%) was observed most frequently, followed by struvite (2.05%) and cystine (2.50%). For some chemical compounds, a significant gender-related difference was found. Applying the second derivative spectra allowed to distinguish between the presence of whewellite, weddellite and their mixture. More than 70% of recurrent urinary stones were of the same chemical composition.

Conclusion: FT-IR analysis of urinary calculi over a period of 20 years gave an outlook of the prevalence of certain stone components in patients from Buenos Aires, Argentina, which in some cases were found to be gender-related. The results obtained are in accordance with statistics from other industrialized countries, except for uric acid (15.93%), even pure or combined in other forms, which was more frequent than the world prevalence (up to 10%). FT-IR spectroscopy combined with the second derivative method of analysis proved to be a powerful tool to discriminate mixed oxalates whose composition only differed in one water molecule.