Atherogenicity, Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metals and Bioelements Status in Hypertensive Nigerians in an Urban Population

Oyedeji Samuel Oyewole *

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.

Adesina Adeyemi Adeleke

Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Oke Olusegun Taiwo

Department of Hematology and Blood Group Serology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.

Awe Kunle

Unilever Nigeria PLC Staff Clinic, 1 Billings Way, Oregun, Ikeja, Lagose, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Objectives: This study investigated levels of measured parameters; bio-elements (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and manganese), heavy metals (cadmium and lead), oxidative stress biomarkers (vitamin C, Vitamin E, reduced Glutathione-GSH and malondialdehyde-MDA) and lipid profile (cholesterol-CHOL, triglyceride- TG, high-density lipoprotein- HDL, low-density lipoprotein- LDL and VLDL) in primary hypertensive individuals.

Materials and Methods: A total of 74 confirmed hypertensive individuals (30 males, 44 females) of 30-55 years (test subjects) and 46 (22males, 24 females) age-matched apparently healthy normotensive individuals (control) were involved in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of bio-elements and toxic metals while spectrophotometric methods were used for the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers and lipid fractions.

Results: Comparative analysis between test and control subjects showed significantly reduced concentrations of vitamins C and E, GSH, the bio-elements, HDL and Zinc/Copper ratio. Significantly elevated concentrations of the toxic metals, MDA, CHOL, TG, LDL, and VLDL, the atherogenic indices- LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and TG/HDL as well as Cadmium/ Zinc ratio. There was indirect association between the bio-elements and atherogenic lipid fractions but a direct correlation with HDL. Also, negative correlations were observed between the heavy metals and the antioxidants biomolecules.

Conclusion: The concentrations of the measured bio-elements, vitamins C and E, GSH and HDL were significantly lower in hypertensive individuals while the levels of heavy metals, cholesterol, TG, LDL and MDA were significantly higher. 

Keywords: Urban population, oxidative stress, heavy metals, bio-elements, atherogenicity, hypertension, vitamins

How to Cite

Oyewole , Oyedeji Samuel, Adesina Adeyemi Adeleke, Oke Olusegun Taiwo, Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu, and Awe Kunle. 2023. “Atherogenicity, Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metals and Bioelements Status in Hypertensive Nigerians in an Urban Population”. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health 21 (11):184-93.


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