Atherogenicity, Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metals and Bioelements Status in Hypertensive Nigerians in an Urban Population

Oyedeji Samuel Oyewole *

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.

Adesina Adeyemi Adeleke

Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Oke Olusegun Taiwo

Department of Hematology and Blood Group Serology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.

Awe Kunle

Unilever Nigeria PLC Staff Clinic, 1 Billings Way, Oregun, Ikeja, Lagose, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Objectives: This study investigated levels of measured parameters; bio-elements (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and manganese), heavy metals (cadmium and lead), oxidative stress biomarkers (vitamin C, Vitamin E, reduced Glutathione-GSH and malondialdehyde-MDA) and lipid profile (cholesterol-CHOL, triglyceride- TG, high-density lipoprotein- HDL, low-density lipoprotein- LDL and VLDL) in primary hypertensive individuals.

Materials and Methods: A total of 74 confirmed hypertensive individuals (30 males, 44 females) of 30-55 years (test subjects) and 46 (22males, 24 females) age-matched apparently healthy normotensive individuals (control) were involved in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of bio-elements and toxic metals while spectrophotometric methods were used for the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers and lipid fractions.

Results: Comparative analysis between test and control subjects showed significantly reduced concentrations of vitamins C and E, GSH, the bio-elements, HDL and Zinc/Copper ratio. Significantly elevated concentrations of the toxic metals, MDA, CHOL, TG, LDL, and VLDL, the atherogenic indices- LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and TG/HDL as well as Cadmium/ Zinc ratio. There was indirect association between the bio-elements and atherogenic lipid fractions but a direct correlation with HDL. Also, negative correlations were observed between the heavy metals and the antioxidants biomolecules.

Conclusion: The concentrations of the measured bio-elements, vitamins C and E, GSH and HDL were significantly lower in hypertensive individuals while the levels of heavy metals, cholesterol, TG, LDL and MDA were significantly higher. 

Keywords: Urban population, oxidative stress, heavy metals, bio-elements, atherogenicity, hypertension, vitamins

How to Cite

Oyewole , O. S., Adeleke , A. A., Taiwo , O. O., Ganiyu , A. O., & Kunle , A. (2023). Atherogenicity, Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metals and Bioelements Status in Hypertensive Nigerians in an Urban Population. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 21(11), 184–193.


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