Atherogenicity, Oxidative Stress, Heavy Metals and Bioelements Status in Hypertensive Nigerians in an Urban Population
Issue: 2023 - Volume 21 [Issue 11]
Oyedeji Samuel Oyewole *
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.
Adesina Adeyemi Adeleke
Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Oke Olusegun Taiwo
Department of Hematology and Blood Group Serology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria.
Unilever Nigeria PLC Staff Clinic, 1 Billings Way, Oregun, Ikeja, Lagose, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Objectives: This study investigated levels of measured parameters; bio-elements (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and manganese), heavy metals (cadmium and lead), oxidative stress biomarkers (vitamin C, Vitamin E, reduced Glutathione-GSH and malondialdehyde-MDA) and lipid profile (cholesterol-CHOL, triglyceride- TG, high-density lipoprotein- HDL, low-density lipoprotein- LDL and VLDL) in primary hypertensive individuals.
Materials and Methods: A total of 74 confirmed hypertensive individuals (30 males, 44 females) of 30-55 years (test subjects) and 46 (22males, 24 females) age-matched apparently healthy normotensive individuals (control) were involved in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of bio-elements and toxic metals while spectrophotometric methods were used for the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers and lipid fractions.
Results: Comparative analysis between test and control subjects showed significantly reduced concentrations of vitamins C and E, GSH, the bio-elements, HDL and Zinc/Copper ratio. Significantly elevated concentrations of the toxic metals, MDA, CHOL, TG, LDL, and VLDL, the atherogenic indices- LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and TG/HDL as well as Cadmium/ Zinc ratio. There was indirect association between the bio-elements and atherogenic lipid fractions but a direct correlation with HDL. Also, negative correlations were observed between the heavy metals and the antioxidants biomolecules.
Conclusion: The concentrations of the measured bio-elements, vitamins C and E, GSH and HDL were significantly lower in hypertensive individuals while the levels of heavy metals, cholesterol, TG, LDL and MDA were significantly higher.
Keywords: Urban population, oxidative stress, heavy metals, bio-elements, atherogenicity, hypertension, vitamins
How to Cite
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