Demographic Factors and Bystander CPR in Nigerian Athletes
Issue: 2023 - Volume 21 [Issue 11]
Adedamola O. Onyeaso *
Department of Health Promotion, Environmental and Safety Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Smith O. Woji-Nyeche
Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.
Chibuotam O. Woji-Nyeche
Dental Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.
Chukwudi O. Onyeaso
Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Background/Aim: There is limited research on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (bystander CPR) involving athletes globally and in the Nigerian context specifically. The impact of age and gender of individuals on the knowledge of bystander CPR and attitude towards it is variable. This study aimed at assessing the associations of age, gender and years of experience as athletes with knowledge and attitude towards bystander CPR.
Methods: A national cross sectional study of Nigerian athletes covering 25 different sports was carried out. Four hundred and nineteen (419) athletes comprising 278 (66.3%) males and 141(33.7%) females with age range of 11- 49 years and mean age of 23.43 + 5.66 (SD) filled and returned the questionnaire that tested the associations of the participants’ age, gender and years of experience as athletes with their knowledge of bystander CPR and their attitude towards this life-saving procedure. In addition to descriptive statistics, the associations of their age, gender and years of experience as athletes with their bystander CPR knowledge and attitude were tested using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), while the significance level was set P < .05.
Results: Age of the athletes did not have any statistically significant associations with their bystander CPR knowledge and attitude towards it (P > .05). Male or female gender did not give any statistically significant associations with their knowledge of and attitude towards bystander CPR (P > .05), as well as their years of experience as athletes with bystander CPR knowledge and attitude towards the procedure (P > .05).
Conclusion: Neither age, gender nor years of experience as athletes of the participants gave any statistically significant associations with their bystander CPR knowledge and attitude towards this life-saving procedure.
Keywords: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, age, gender, years of experience, Nigerian Athletes
How to Cite
De Buck E, Laermans J, Vanhove AC, Dockx K, Vandekerckhove P, Geduld H. An educational pathway and teaching materials for first aid training of children in sub-Saharan Africa based on the best available evidence. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):836. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08857-5
Leaary M, Buckler D, Agarwal A, Abella BS, Blewer AL. Abstract 278: The Association of Gender and Age with the Quality of Layperson CPR Performance. Available:https://doi.org/10.1161/circ.130.suppl_2.278Circulation. 2014;130:A278
Finke SR,Schroeder DC,Ecker H,Wingen S,Hinkelbein J,Wetsch WA, Köhler D,Böttiger BW. Gender aspects in cardiopulmonary resuscitation by schoolchildren: A systematic review. Resuscitation.2018;125: 70-78.
DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.01.025.Epub 2018 Feb 3
Amacher SA, Schumacher C, Legeret C, Tschan F, Semmer NK, Marsch S, Hunziker S. Influence ofgenderon the performance of cardiopulmonary rescue teams: A randomized, prospective simulator study. Crit Care Med.2017;45(7):1184-1191. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002375
Pivac S, Gradišek P, Skela-Savic B. The impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training on schoolchildren and their CPR knowledge, attitudes toward CPR, and willingness to help others and to perform CPR: mixed methods research design. BMC Public Healthvolume, Articlenumber. 2020;20:915.
Weidenauer D, Hamp T, Schriefl C, Holaubek C, Gattinger M, Krammel M, et al. The impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) manikin chest stiffness on motivation and CPR performance measures in children undergoing CPR training—A prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(8):e0202430. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202430
Dobbie F, MacKintosh AM, Clegg G, Stirzaker R, Bauld L. Attitudes towards bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Results from a cross-sectional general population survey. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(3):e0193391.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso CO. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students. J Edu Pract ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online). 2016;7(18):44-48.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso OO. Impact of age and sex on Bystander cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge. Int J Scientific Res Manag. 2017;5(11):7510-7517.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso OO. Association of age and gender with simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills performance in some Nigerian student teachers. J Adv Med Med Res. 2017;24(9):1-9.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso CO. Gender association with cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in hands-only and conventional CPR training techniques programme. Am J Med Med Sci. 2019; 9(3):108-113.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso CO. Participants’ gender and theoretical knowledge of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation after two methods of CPR Training. Am J Med Med Sci. 2020; 10(3):147-153.
Toresdahl B, Courson R, Borjesson M, Sharma S, Drezner J. Emergency cardiac care in athletic setting: from Schools to the Olympics. Br J Sports Med 2012;46(Suppl I):i85–i89. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091447
Maron BJ. Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med 2003;349: 1064–75
Drezner JA, Rogers KJ. Sudden cardiac arrest in intercollegiate athletes: detailed analysis and outcomes of resuscitation in nine cases. Heart Rhythm. 2006;3:755–9
Maron BJ, Estes NA. Commotio cordis. N Engl J Med 2010;362:917–27.
Drezner JA, Courson RW, Roberts WO, et al. Inter-association task force recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of sudden cardiac arrest in high school and college athletic programs: A consensus statement. J Athl Train 2007;42:143–58
Lapostolle F, Le Toumelin P, Agostinucci JM, et al. Basic cardiac life support providers checking the carotid pulse: Performance, degree of conviction, and influencing factors. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:878–80.
Borjesson M, Dugmore D, Mellwig KP, et al. Time for action regarding cardiovascular emergency care at sports arenas: a lesson from the Arena study. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1438–41.
Kim JH, Malhotra R, Chiampas G, et al. Cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:130–40.
Webner D, Duprey KM, Drezner JA, et al. Sudden cardiac arrest and death in United States marathons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso CO. Knowledge and Practice of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) by Athletes in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. International Journal of the 14th West Africa University Games 2019;2(1):130-134.
Onyeaso AO, Onyeaso CO. Attitude of a group of nigerian athletes towards bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Int J Sports Sci. 2020;10(2):43-49.
Delta win National Sports Festival. 10TH December 2022. DELTA 2022 – National Sports Festival, PUNCH Newspaper, Wednesday; 2023.
Blewer AL, McGovern SK, Schmicker RH, May S, Morrison LJ, Aufderheide TP, Daya M, Idris AH, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Vilke, GM, Abella BSand Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Investigators. Gender disparities Among Adult Recipients of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Public. Available:https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004710Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2018;11:e004710
Finke SR, Schroeder DC, Ecker H, Wingen S, Hinkelbein J, Wetsch WF, Kochler D, Bottiger BW. Gender aspects in cardiopulmonary resuscitation by schoolchildren: A systematic review. Resuscitation.2018;125:70-78.
Christensen T. Bystander CPR on kids differs by race and ethnicity. American Heart Association News.
Last Accessed on August 10, 2023.
Tsuruda T, Hamahata T, Endo GJ, Tsuruda Y, Kaikita K. Bystander-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation by nonfamily is associated with neurologically favorable survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Miyazaki City District. PLoS One. 2022;17(10): e0276574. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0276574. eCollection 2022
Adielsson A, Hollenberg G, Karlsson T, Lindqvist J, Lundin S, Silfverstolpe, J, Svensson L, Herlitz J. Increase in survival and bystander CPR in out-of-hospital shockable arrhythmia: bystander CPR and female gender are predictors of improved outcome. Experiences from Sweden in an 18-year perspective. Heart. 2011;97(17): 1391-6.
DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2011.222711.Epub 2011 Jun 29
Awad E, Fordyce CB, Grunau B, Christenson J, Helmer J, Humphries K. One-year survival after out-of- hospital cardiac arrest: Sex-based survival analysis in a Canadian population. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2023; 4(3):e12957. DOI: 10.1002/emp2.12957. eCollection 2023 Jun
Cardiovascular Health. Bridging the Gender Gap in CPR Training. Last Accessed on; 2023.
Yoon W, Ro YS, Cho S-i. A mediation analysis of the effect of practical training on the relationship between demographic factors, and bystanders’ self-efficacy in CPR performance. PLoS ONE 2019;14(4): e0215432.
Maron BJ, Doerer JJ, Haas TS, Tierney DM, Mueller FO.Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes: analysis of 1866 deaths in the United States, 1980–2006.Circulation.2009;119:1085 1092.LinkGoogle Scholar
Link MS, Sudden Cardiac Death in the Athlete. Bridging the Gaps between Evidence, Policy, and Practice. Circulation. 2012;125:2511–2516.Originally published22 May 2012
Harmon KG, Asif IM, Klossner D, Drezner JA.Incidence of sudden cardiac death in national collegiate athletic association athletes.Circulation.2011;123:1594– 1600.LinkGoogle Scholar
Peng T, Derry LT, Yogeswaran V, Goldschlager NF. Commotio Cordis in 2023. Sports Med. 2023;53(8):1527-1536.
CPR for professional athletes: sport-specific guidelineS. HOME/ MYCPR NOW™ BLOG August 18, 2023. Last accessed on September 6, 2023.