Patient-Related Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Medication Non-Adherence: A Comprehensive Review of BMI, Knowledge Levels, Treatment Concerns, and Self-Efficacy

Emily Milla-Amekor *

Ghana Standards Authority, P.O. Box MB 245, Accra, Ghana and Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Livingstone International University of Tourism Excellence & Business Management (LIUTEBM) Ibex Hill, Lusaka, Republic of Zambia.

Ebenezer Ato Ewusie

Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Livingstone International University of Tourism Excellence & Business Management (LIUTEBM) Ibex Hill, Lusaka, Republic of Zambia and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), School of Public Service and Governance. Department of Development Policy, P.O. Box AH 50, Achimota, Greater Accra Region, Ghana and Metropolitant Research and Education Bureau, P. O. Box LA 123, La-Accra, Ghana.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The persistent issue of non-adherence to medications in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has far-reaching implications, affecting not only the health outcomes for individual patients but also exacerbating the overall financial burden of healthcare systems. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of a spectrum of factors that influence adherence to diabetic medications, thus extending the discourse beyond a mere attribution of responsibility to patients. In particular, the study looks at how factors like BMI, disease knowledge, treatment worries, and self-efficacy are linked to non-adherence.

The review substantiates that deficits in disease-specific knowledge and lower levels of self-efficacy are significantly correlated with medication non-adherence. Concurrently, elevated BMI values and apprehensions regarding treatment were also found to have an adverse effect on adherence, although the magnitude of their influence was comparatively less pronounced. Consequently, the incorporation of these identified variables into customised treatment regimens is strongly advocated. Interventional strategies, such as educational modules designed to enhance the understanding of the disease, coupled with psychological support mechanisms aimed at elevating self-efficacy, emerged as viable solutions to the persistent issue of medication non-adherence. Moreover, pre-emptively addressing concerns related to treatment options and accounting for BMI when prescribing medications offer additional pathways to improve medication compliance rates.

The paper reinforces the imperative for a multidimensional patient-centered healthcare model. By meticulously identifying and addressing the multifaceted factors that contribute to medication non-adherence, healthcare practitioners could optimise health outcomes, mitigate complications, and thus effectuate substantial reductions in healthcare costs associated with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Patient-related factors, type 2 diabetes, medication non-adherence

How to Cite

Milla-Amekor , E., & Ewusie, E. A. (2023). Patient-Related Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Medication Non-Adherence: A Comprehensive Review of BMI, Knowledge Levels, Treatment Concerns, and Self-Efficacy. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 21(11), 44–60.


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