Evaluation of Thyroid Function of HIV Patients in Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria

F. U. Ukodei *

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

N. K. Nnamah

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

A. J. Onuegbu

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

I. C. Nwako

College Clinic, Federal College of Education [Technical], Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria.

A. C. Ihim

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

J. C. Nnamdi

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

N.J. Nnodiogu

Hephzibah Medical Diagnostic Laboratories Abule-Ado, Lagos, Nigeria.

L.U. Ugwu

Department of Physics Education, Federal College of Education [Technical], Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria.

B. Ekeh

Medical Services Department, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Abnormal thyroid function tests have been detected at various phases in people living with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) not well understood. However, there is insufficient study among Nigerians living with HIV.

Objective: This study is aimed to determine thyroid hormones in HIV positive individuals compared with HIV negative individuals in Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of six months among 95 HIV positive and 30 HIV negative individuals attending USAID/FHI clinic of Immaculate Heart Hospital in Umunze, Nigeria. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of HAART (those on HAART [48] – GROUP 1, HAART naïve [47] – GROUP 2 and Control [30] – GROUP 3). The subjects were interviewed, examined and blood sample collected for determination of thyroid function parameters which include thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroxine (T4).

Results: Among the 125 subjects recruited for the study 67.2% were females and 32.8% males. The mean levels of TSH and fT3 was found to be higher in group 1 subjects than in group 2 and the group 3 subjects. The mean level of T4 was significantly higher in group 2 subjects than group 1 and the group 3 subjects. The level of T3 was significantly lower in control subjects in comparison to both HAART and non-HAART subjects. Primary hypothyroidism is the commonest pattern of thyroid dysfunction among the HIV positive patients followed by isolated low fT4.

Conclusion: Serum levels of thyroid hormones as shown in this study may be used as baseline periodic markers during antiretroviral therapy while people living with HIV may benefit from supplementation if appropriate. There is also need for a larger study to identify the risk factors for progression to overt thyroid disease in HIV infected subjects with thyroid autoimmunity.

Keywords: HIV infection, HAART, thyroid hormones, Hypothyroidism, Umunze Nigeria

How to Cite

Ukodei , F. U., Nnamah , N. K., Onuegbu , A. J., Nwako , I. C., Ihim , A. C., Nnamdi , J. C., Nnodiogu , N., Ugwu , L., & Ekeh , B. (2023). Evaluation of Thyroid Function of HIV Patients in Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 21(11), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2023/v21i11916


Download data is not yet available.


Guilherme AR, Mayra Christina, Daniel de Alvarenga, Rafaef, Jorge FC, Walter de Araujo Eyer Silva, Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry, Marcelo CV, Rogerio NM. Association between antiretroviral and thyroid disease: A cross sectional Study. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(2): 240-44.

Miller V, Hodder S. Beneficial impact of antiretroviral therapy on non- Aids mortality. AIDS. 2014;28(2):273-4.

Brockmeyer N, Kreuter A, Bader A, Seemann U, Reimann G. Prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in HIV-infected men. Horm Res. 2000;54(5-6):294-5.

Pacifici R. Estrogen, cytokines, and pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1996 Aug; 11(8): 1043-51. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650110802. PMID: 8854239.

Naing, L., Winn, T. and Rusli, B.N. (2006) Practical Issues in Calculating the Sample Size for Prevalence Studies. Medical Statistics. Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 1, 9-14. Available:https://www.scribd.com/doc/63105077/How-to-Calculate-Sample-Size

da Silva Gar, Azevedo MCVM, Motta RN, Pinto JFC, Sa Cam, Ferry FRA. Herpes zoster oftalmico como manifestacao de syndrome de reconstituicao immune em um paciente com AIDS. Relato de Caso Cad Bras Med. 2012; 25:15-8.

WHO. Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycaemia. Report of a WHO/IDF Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2006;21.

Ayodele EO, Akinboro AO, Adepeju AA, Akinremi SO, Alao C, Popoola A. Prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS. Metab Syndr Relat Disorder. 2012;10(5):373-379.

Reng R, Uloko AE, Puepet FH, Onwugbuezie GA, Ramalan MA. Prevalence and determinants of glucose Intolerance among HIV/AIDS patients in North-central Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine. 2016;25(2):128-133.

Palacios R, Merchante N, Macias J, Gonzalez M, Castillo J, Ruiz J. Incidence of and risk factors for insulin resistance in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients 48 weeks after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2006;11(4):529-535.

Centres for disease control and prevention: HIV surveillance Report. 2014; 26:101. Available:http//www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/reports/surveillance/.

Collazos J, Ibarra S, Mayor J. Thyroid hormones in HIV infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: Evidence of an interrelationship between the thyroid axis and the immune system. AIDS. 2003;17(5):763-65.

Qureshi A., Panahloo, A and Seal, L.J (2005): Thyroid dysfunction in HIV. Endocrine Abstracts. 10:95

Hoffman CJ, Brown TT. Thyroid function abnormalities in HIV infected patients. Clin infect Dis. 2007;45(4):488-94.

Noureldeen A, Qusti SY, Khoja GM. Thyroid function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients. Toxicol Ind Health. 2014;30(10) :919-25.

Verma RK, Giri R, Guputa C, Srivastava V. (2017) Study of thyroid profile in seropositive HIV adults patients on HAART regimen. Int J Adv Med 2017 4:1092-8.

Palanisamy P, Perisamy M, Uma M, Mathiyalagan D. Thyroid function, cardiac risk assessment profile and haematological changes during HIV infection and AIDS patients. J Medicine. 2010;11(2):131-36.

Abbiyesuku FM, Osuji KC, Kuti MO, Atiba AS. Thyroid function tests in Nigerian HIV-Seropositive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). International Journal of Medical and Clinical Research. 2014;5(1):277-81.

Uloko AE, Abubakar UI, Gezawa ID. Thyroid Disorders and Autoimmunity among Patients with HIV/AIDS in Northern Nigeria. Ann Clin Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;3(1):1014.

Rasoolinejad M, Afhami S, Izadi M, Hajabdolbaghi M, Kjairandish P. Clinical and paraclinical manifestation of thyroid dysfunction among patients with HIV/AIDS Tehran, Iran; 2004.

Shujing Ji, Changzhong. Prevalence and influencing factors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-infected patients. Biomed Research. 2016; Article ID 3874257:11.

Ketsamathi C, Jongjaroenprasert W, Chailurkit LO, Udomsubpayakul U, Kiertiburanakul S. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Thai HIV-infected patients. Curr HIV Res. 2006;4(4):465-7.