A Selective Review of Lipid Autoxidation and Rancidity, Antioxidants, and Dithiooxamide

Seamus C. C. Phan *

McGallen & Bolden Pte Ltd 10 Anson Road, #03-19, International Plaza, Singapore 079903, Singapore.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: The authors had a research interest in antiaging, oxidation and antioxidants, and determined that lipids are some of the more common raw materials in foods, cosmetics, and in humans, and would be an area to explore autoxidation, whether in retarding spoilage, or to slow aging.

Objective: The authors selected a few lipids and tested them against common pro-oxidants, and documented the effects of common antioxidants as well as a proposed antioxidant candidate together with a short-term toxicity study.

Methods: The authors subjected the lipids to elevated temperatures, with a control, and various pro-oxidants, as well as some commercial antioxidants, and the antioxidant candidate. The authors subsequently tested the lipids for by-products of oxidation, and used mice for a short-term toxicity study.

Results: Lipids stored in iron, copper, and other heavy metals, or are contaminated with such metals, are prone to accelerated autoxidation. Aluminium seems to provide an induction period to lipids and does not accelerate autoxidation as other metals do. When compared to antioxidants such as vitamin E, BHA, BHT, and PG, the antioxidant candidate dithiooxamide appears to be a proficient antioxidant and free from short-term toxicity in a small sample study, which were far below the LDLo and LD50 conducted on rats and mice using dithiooxamide in other later published studies.

Conclusions: The authors determined that lipids should steer clear of iron, copper and other heavy metals, and suggest that the antioxidant candidate dithiooxamide in low quantities may be useful for external lipid applications.

Keywords: Autoxidation, antioxidant, lipid, anti-aging, ferroptosis, dithiooxamide, toxicology

How to Cite

Phan, S. C. C. (2022). A Selective Review of Lipid Autoxidation and Rancidity, Antioxidants, and Dithiooxamide. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 20(4), 55–79. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2022/v20i430457


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