Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension among Adults (40 Years and Above) in the Tano North District of the Ahafo Region, Ghana
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health,
Introduction: Increased prevalence of hypertension (HTN) has been attributed to commonly known risk factors such as obesity, low level of nutritional knowledge, lack of exercise, alcohol intake, and tobacco use.
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, and associated risk factors of hypertension among residents of the Yamfo community in the Ahafo Region of Ghana.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study of 174 participants aged ≥40 years were enrolled using simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural/lifestyle risk factors and knowledge of hypertension. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.
Results: Prevalence of hypertension was 63.2% (95% CI: 55.7–70.1) in adults 40 years and above. Risk factors that were significantly associated with hypertension were lack of physical activity (p=0.030), alcohol consumption (p=0.001), consumption of meals prepared with oil (p=0.016), reduced frequency of fruit consumption (p=0.008) and reduced frequency of vegetable consumption (p<0.001). Increasing age (aOR,1.9; 95%CI (1.3-2.4); p=.049), physical activity (cOR,2.12, 95% CI (1.07-4.21), p=.032), alcohol consumption (aOR, 57.03; 95% C1 (4.48-726.59); p=.002), and knowledge on the cause of hypeternsion (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI (1.93-5.17); p=.032) were observed as determinants of hypertension.
Conclusion: Majority of the study participants were hypertensive, with the majority of them having knowledge on risk factors of hypertension. Majority of participants had the opinion that hypertension is inevitable, because it comes with old age. Enough (Intensive) education concerning hypertension could be extended to the community, about the different, but equally relevant risk factors of hypertension, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, reduced fruit and vegetable consumption and inappropriate diet. This could be achieved by organizing outreach programs by the community health workers in places like markets and churches in order to remit the elderly that they can still be healthy in old age, and at schools and on social media to inculcate positive health behavior in the youth.
- risk factors
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