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Aim: To present the case report of an incidental finding of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL) found during an emergency caesarean section in a young Nigerian woman who presented with slow progress in labour and maternal exhaustion.
Presentation of Case: We present the case of a 35-year-old unbooked primigravida with previous myomectomy who presented with maternal exhaustion and slow progress in labour and subsequently had an emergency lower segment caesarean section. At surgery, multiple firm to hard nodules of varying sizes were seen scattered throughout the peritoneum. Histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis of the nodules showed features consistent with disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Clinical and radiological follow-up for 1 year was uneventful.
Discussion: DPL is a rare benign smooth muscle tumour that clinically and macroscopically simulates disseminated intra-abdominal or pelvic malignancy. It occurs predominantly in women of child bearing age and is mostly discovered incidentally. The occurrence of DPL in association with pregnancy and uterine leiomyomas was also corroborated in this index case as pedunculated and intramural uterine nodules were also seen during surgery.
Conclusion: Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign disease which may be misdiagnosed as disseminated or metastatic intra-abdominal malignancy. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis and proper management.
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