Main Article Content
Objectives: The purpose of this research was to study the epidemiology of H1N1 influenza A virus infection during lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in Uttarakhand.
Methodology: An analysis of primary data, obtained from DNA Labs-A Center for Applied Sciences, Dehradun after detection of the throat and nasal swabs by RT-PCR method. The total number of samples were 102 which were collected from the suspected cases for influenza like illness (ILI) in and around Uttarakhand region in different age groups. Molecular Characterization was done for all the cases. The data contained the cases from the month of March, 2020 to the month of November, 2020.
Results: Results showed that after the onset of lockdown, the number of positive cases for H1N1 influenza viral infection were less in comparative to the negative cases (30 positive cases and 72 negative cases). Age group from 21 to 40 years and above 70 years became infected with the H1N1 swine flu and suffered with Category C symptom.
Conclusions: This research provides the significant findings for the epidemiological study of H1N1 influenza viral infection during lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemics in Uttarakhand. It could be said that due to the similarities of the symptoms of H1N1 influenza A virus and COVID-19, all the cases were referred to COVID-19 testing due to its impact even though that case could have been suffering from any other disease including H1N1 as the symptoms similarities between these two viruses are almost the same.
Hellerman C. ‘Swine Flu’ not stoppable, World Health Organization Says. CNN; 2009.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. World Health Organisation; 2010.
First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality. Cdc.Gov; 2012.
Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Harper SA, Shaw M, Uyeki TM et.al. Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(18):1708-19. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1000449
COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE), John Hopkins University(JHU). ArcGIS; 2020.
Ye Q, Wang B, Mao J. The pathogenesis and treatment of the ‘Cytokine Storm’ in COVID-19. J Infect. 2020;80(6):607-613. DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf. 2020.03.037
Yelin D, Wirtheim E, Vetter P, Kalil AC, Bruchfeld J, Runold M et.al. Long term consequences of COVID-19: Research needs. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(10): 1115-1117. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20) 30701
Peter Wark. What are the long term symptoms of COVID-19? The Conversation; 2020.
Mayo Clinic Staff: COVID-19 (Coronavirus): Long-term effects; 2020.
What are the long-term health risks following COVID-19? News GP. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP); 2020.
COVID-19 transmission up in the air. Lancet Respir Med; 2020. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20) 30514-2
Karia R, Gupta I, Khandait H, Yandav A. COVID-19 and its modes of transmission. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(10):1798-1801. DOI: 10.1007/s42399-020-00498-4
Nogrady B. What the data say about asymptomatic COVID infections. Nature. 2020;587(7835):534-535. DOI: 10.1038/d41586-020-03141-3
Gao Z, Xu Y, Sun C, Wang X, Guo Y, Qiu S, Ma K. A systematic review of asymptomatic infections with COVID-19. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.001
Lai CC, Liu YH, Wang CY, Wang YH, Hseuh SC, Yen MY et.al. Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020;53(3):404-412. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012.
Furukawa NW, Brooks JT, Sobel J. Evidence supporting transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 while presymptomatic or asymptomatic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26(7). DOI: 10.3201/eid2607.201595
Gao Z, Xu Y, Sun C, Wang X, Guo Y, Ma K. A systematic review of asymptomatic infections with COVID-19. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.001
John Hopkins University Statistics; 2020.
World Health Organisation Guidelines.
Sharma N, Kumar K, Kumar V, Mahato B, Kumar Y, Rana A, Kaundal S, Nautiyal SC. Study of pandemic 2009 influenza a(H1N1) virus by cellular and molecular profiling in Uttarakhand population: Clinical Influence and Epidemiology. Int J of Bioassay; 2019.